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Bio 162 Notes from January 19- 28th

by: Alyssa Barrett

Bio 162 Notes from January 19- 28th BIO 162-21

Marketplace > La Salle University > Biology > BIO 162-21 > Bio 162 Notes from January 19 28th
Alyssa Barrett
La Salle
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About this Document

These notes cover the Special Senses, Diseases of the Eyes and Ear and parts of the Muscular System notes.
Anatomy and Physiology II
Dr. Rothblat
Class Notes
Biology; 162; Anatomy and Physiology




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Barrett on Wednesday January 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 162-21 at La Salle University taught by Dr. Rothblat in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology II in Biology at La Salle University.


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Date Created: 01/06/16
Bio 162 Notes    Olfaction: Sense of Smell  ­3 type of cell involved  1.) Olfactory receptor cells  2.) Supporting cells  3.) Basal cells     Supporting Cells  Location: Lining of the nose (Mucous Membrane)  Purpose: Physical Support, Nourishment and Electrical Insulation for Olfactory Receptor Cells  Basal Stem Cells  Purpose: Undergo Mitosis to replace Olfactory receptor cells  Olfactory glands  Purpose: Produce mucus that dissolves odor molecules so that transduction may occur     How it works?  Receptors in  the nasal mucosa send impulses along branches of olfactory (I) nerve. It happens  through the Cribriform plate, Synapse w/ olfactory bulb, and impulses travel along the olfactory  tract.     Olfactory transduction  Binding of an odorant molecule to an olfactory receptor protein  Gustation: Sense of Taste  ­Taste is a chemical sense which has 5 primary taste: sour, sweet, bitter, salty, and umami  (meaty). Umami are combinations of the other four primary tastes     Taste Buds: Contain receptors for the sense of taste. There are about 10,000 taste buds on the  tongue. Taste Buds have 3 kinds of epithelial cells: supporting ,gustatory and basal stem cells.     3 Cranial Nerves: Facial(VII), Glossopharyngeal (IX) and Vagus(X) nerves  *near sighted and far sighted (hyperopic & myopic)  Astigmatism​ : a condition where either the cornea or the lens (or both) has an irregular curve,  which causes blurred or distorted vision.  Light adaptation: ​ when a individual moves from dark surroundings to light ones. Takes  seconds  Dark adaptation: ​ when one moves from a lighted area into a dark one. Takes minutes  This is because of the rate of bleaching and regeneration of photopigments in rods and cones  ­In darkness, rod photoreceptors release the inhibitory neurotransmitter glutamate. This causes  bipolar cells to inhibit and transmit signals to ganglion cells which provide electrical signals  which provide output from the retina to the brain.  Visual Information: the two visual fields of each eye are nasal and temporal. The visual info from  the right half of each visual field travels to the left side and vice versa. The left visual fields  (temporal) go to the right side of the brain. The right visual fields (nasal) go to the left side of the  brain.  *your ear is the same uniqueness as fingerprints. No two people have the same shape ear.  Round window: there to equalize the pressure of the sides of the oval window  Equilibrum: 2 types static= maintenance of the body's position relative to the force of gravity  Dynamic= the mainteance of the body's position In response to sudden movement  Diseases of the Eye and Ear     Eye:  Myopia­ The eyeball is longer than it should be and the image converges (narrows to a  sharp focal point). People with this see close objects sharply, but perceive distant  objects as blurry. To correct the vision, a concave lens is used.     Hyperopia­ the eyeball is shorter than it should be and the image converges behind the retina.  These individuals can see distant objects clearly, but have difficulty with close objects. A convex  lens is used to correct this     Glaucoma­ caused by decreased reabsorption of aqueous humor increasing pressure in the  anterior cavity. This pushes the lens back increasing the pressure of the vitreous humor places  on the retina. Symptoms often go unnoticed until loss of vision occurs at which time damage is  permanent. Usually associated with diabetes.     Cataracts­ clouding of the lens due to the lens fibers darkening with age. Common with diabetes  and usually has a milky appearance. Can be treated with replacement surgery.     Macular Degeneration­ Leading cause of severe vision loss in people over 60. It is degeneration  of central area of retina (macula). There are two forms: wet and dry. Wet is growth of abnormal  blood vessels in chroid and dry is the accumulation of deposits called drusens.  Ear: (continue notes of own time)    Chapter 11 : Muscular System     Skeletal Muscles produce movement by exerting force on tendons. The tendons attach  to ad pull on bones and movement occurs.     Origin: the attachment to the stationary bone  Insertion: attachment to the moveable bone     *Bones serve as levers and joints serve as fulcrums. Levers are acted on by resistance  and effort.     Most muscle movement are coordinated by several skeletal muscles acting in groups,  rather than individual, and most skeletal muscles are arranged in opposing pairs at  joints.  Agonist: prime mover  Antagonist: opposite movement.  Synergist: similar movement         


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