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# 199 Class Note for ME 20000 with Professor Chen at Purdue

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This 53 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at Purdue University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views.

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Date Created: 02/06/15

1 Syllabus Systems Definitions SyHabus Instructor Yan Chen Office hours MWF 130220 Phone and email 4967562 yanchenpurdueedu Syllabus Cont d Textbook Moran and Shapiro Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics 6th Ed John Wiley 2008 Prerequisite calculus physics chemistry CHEM115 amp 116 PHYS152 and MA261 may be concurrent ThermoNumber 3xxx Syllabus Cont d Preview the text before lecture Attempt to solve homework problems before lecture Solving homework problems by using engineering paper Syllabus Cont d Format of your homework Use 8 12 by 11 inch Engineering paper Only one side of the paper should be used Only one problem should be included per page if more than one page is needed for a problem all pages should be stapled together in order l Chen Yan Q 524 399577 7 13 Format of your homework At the top of the engineering paper there are 5 boxes Starting from the left Box 1 leave blank Box 2 put your name last first middle Box 3 put the problem number ie Prob 524 Box 4 put your thermo number Le 3000 You can find your thermo number from httpengineeringpurdueeduyanchenme200 Box 5 put the page number of the problemtotal pages for this problem ie 13 or 33 Syllabus Cont d Format of your homework Given Find System sketch Assumptions Basic equations Solution FDP J WN Syllabus Cont d Homework collection You have at least 4 days to work on your homework Homework is due every Friday No late homework is accepted Syllabus Cont d In class quizzes To check your class attendance and to know how well you understand the lecture No prior announcements Syllabus Cont d Three onehour exams and one final exam Course Gradinq Three onehour exams 50 30 Final exam 30 50 Homework 10 10 Class participation amp quizzes 10 10 The exams do not necessarily look like homework assignments or previous exams No makeup exams Prior approval is needed for skipping an exam Use right hand distribution for such a case A note from your doctor is required in case of sickness Syllabus Cont d Help ME 322 Tutorial room Schedule will be posted outside of the room Yan Chen s office hours right after class in ME room 104 10 Syllabus Cont d Lecture notes to be downloaded httpengineeringpurdueeduyanchenme200 11 Syllabus Cont d Academic honest A word of warning 12 Thermodynamic Systems What is Thermodynamics Why 13 General Definition Thermal dynamics deals with conversion of energy to different forms 14 Applications of Thermodynamics Power plant I I 2 ELEC ENI INPUT ENERGY 100 FOSSIL HEAT STEAM MECHANICAL ELECTRICAL TRANSMISSION L085 L053 L053 15 Applications of Thermodynamics Air planes l Iii Hi M nw 16 Applications of Thermodynamics Air conditioning Muenster Fan Air Inlet Grill Air Ema Gr l EVquritou Coil Condenser Coil 55quot 120quot k 0 6 O EVAPORATOR CONDENSER COIL COW COIL gt INDOORS OUTDOORS 70 F I 100 F AL V EXPANSION VALVE FAN FAN lllil 4 7590amp g 5 100 Figure 1610a A simpie throughthewall arrconditioner unit essentially consrsts of a compresswe refrigeration machine 17 Applications of Thermodynamics Human body FUEL 7 2 NATURAL g EXHALATION CONVECTION OF WARM AND MOISTGASES EVAPORATION RADIATION W FORCED CONVECTION Bi CONDUCTION Figure 41b Methods of dlssxpating waste heat from a biologicaI machme 18 Closed System or control mass 19 Open System or control volume 20 Example 11 Is this classroom an open or closed system What about an aircraft engine 21 Properties Property ndependent properties A 1 m3 container is fully filled with water Since the water density is 1000 kgm3 the total mass of the water is 1000 kg Among the volume density and mass how many of them are independent properties 22 Properties Extensive properties Intensive properties 12 mi 12 m 12V 12V T 5T 9 gp 9 ip 39O39O lt3 23 State and Equilibrium smm For example in this classroom air temperature T air density p and relative humidity I characterize the state 24 State and Equilibrium Equilibrium eg mechanical forces pressure thermal temperature phase vaporliquid chemical combustion 25 State and Equilibrium State postulate The equilibrium state of a simple compressible substance is completely specified by two independent intensive properties eg For the air in this classroom any two of the following parameters can be used to determine all other intensive properties 26 2 Units Specific Volume Pressure Process 27 Quasistatic quasiequilibrium process lB eg room heating up uniformly coffee cooling down uniformly 28 Path P 0 State 2 0 State 1 29 30 Units Basic quantities Physical quantity SI English mass kg lbm length m ft time s 3 temperature K R amount of matter mol lbmol electric current A A amount of light cd candles 31 Units Derived quantities Force Newton s law of motion SI force unit English force unit 32 Density and Specific Volume 33 Pressure Pressure p normal force area 34 Pressure For a column of fluid Freebody diagram 111 A mg I HI pzA 35 Pressure Atmospheric pressure vacuum fluid T A2 L 36 Pressure System pressure gas fluid 37 Pressure Example 21 Given patm 147 psia g 322 fts2 h 100 ft p 624 Ibmft3 Find pIoumlo Assumptions Basic equations 38 Pressure Absolute gage and vacuum pressure A pabs pgage Atmospheric pressure ptm pvac gt Zero pressure 39 Pressure SI pressure units 1Pa1Nm2 1bar 105 Pa 100 kPa 1 atm 1013 bars 147 psi 40 3 Temperature Problem Solving Oth law of thermodynamics If objects A and B are separately in contact with a third object C then A and B are in thermal equilibrium with each other if placed in thermal contact 41 Temperature Two objects in thermal equilibrium with each other are at the same temperature Temperature is the property that determines whether or not an object is in equilibrium with other objects A device that is used to measure the temperature of a system is a thermometer which makes use of the temperature dependence of some physical property eg volume length pressure electrical resistance color etc 42 Thermometer Type of Thermometers Physical Property Measured Pressure and volume of dilute gas Expansion or contraction of fluid Difference in expansion of two solid Electrical resistance ldealgas Mercury bulb Bimetallic strip Platinum resis tance Thermocouple Voltage across dissimilar metals Optical Pyrometer Color of emitted light Silicon diode Electrical resistance 43 ConstantVolume Gas Thermometer This is the standard thermometer Temperature is proportional to pressure Tabp 44 Temperature Celsius scale We assign 0 C gt freezing point of water at 1 atm 100 C gt boiling point of water at 1 atm 45 Temperature Lowest possible temperature 0 Kelvin temperature 46 Kelvin Temperature Scale Scale has gIeaIer scienti c signi cance Minimum temperature de ned as 0 Kelvin 2731500 Relatinnship between Kelvin Celsius Temperature TKTC27315 0 100 C PStearnpemt P 373 K ire 3 Icepem c 273K 23 C UK U U Celsius Kelvin Celsius and Fahrenheit temperature scales I 100T men J ITS Celsius I39Lf IHh IIllllllllllllllllll 5 4 1 Stesm peint h 4Ieepei111 39 E HIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII 39239 2 21 F 1 1801 32quot1 Fahrenheit 393 Temperature Kelvin scale Rankine scale Conversion T C 59 T F 32 T F 95 T C 32 T C 59 T F 40 4o T F 95 T C 40 4o 49 Thermodynamics Problem Solving Problem Setup 1 Sketch process 2 Label known states 3 Identify system Assumptions 1 Process assumptions 2 Property assumptions A Conservation EOIS Performance Indices Boundary 1 Mass 1 Cycle efficiency 1 Work 2 Energy 2 Process efficiency 2 Heat transfer 3 3 Flow Property Evaluat 1 Enthalpy 2 Entropy 3 Determine Unknowns 50 Solution Format Given State in your own words what is given in the problem statement Example The initial temperature is T130 C Find List what the problem wants you to find Example a the pressure at time 2 or P2 A sketch of your control volume Assumptions Example Ideal gas Basic Equations To be detailed in class Solution This includes correct units 51 Example 31 Refrigerant 22 vapor enters the compressor of a refrigeration system at an absolute pressure of 20 psia A pressure gage at the compressor exit indicates a pressure of 280 psig The atmospheric pressure is 146 psia Determine the change in absolute pressure from inlet to exit in psi 52 53

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