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Chapter 34 Notes

by: Courtney Luber

Chapter 34 Notes BIOL 1040

Marketplace > Clemson University > Biology > BIOL 1040 > Chapter 34 Notes
Courtney Luber
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About this Document

Notes we covered in class on Thursday, January 15th
General Biology II
Dr. William Surver
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Luber on Thursday January 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1040 at Clemson University taught by Dr. William Surver in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see General Biology II in Biology at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 01/07/16
Lecture 2: Chapter 34 Animal Nutrition and the Digestive System  Takes place in many different compartments  As animals become more complex, they tend to compartmentalize things  Specialization = how cells perform different functions  Herbivores = live entirely on plant material  Carnivores = meat eaters  Omnivores = feed upon animal and plant material  Sponges- food vacuoles o Bunches of cells o Most simple organism  Incomplete systems- gastrovascular cavity o Singular cavity organism o Food enters mouth and undigested food is expelled back out of the mouth o These organisms tend to live in aquatic environments o Also cnidarians and flat worms  Humans have a complete digestive system o Opening for nutrients to go in o Opening for waste to come out o Allows of compartmentalization  Human digestion components o Oral cavity, salivary glands, stomach, gall-bladder, liver, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus  Oral cavity o Where digestion begins o Mechanical (chewing-which breaks down the food into smaller particles which increases the surface area) and chemical digestion o The tongue  Tastes  Shapes food into a ball called a bolus  Moves bolus towards the pharynx o Salivary glands release  A glycoprotein that moistens and lubricates food  Buffers that neutralize acids  Salivary amylase-an enzyme that begins the hydrolysis of starch  Antibacterial agents that kill some bacteria ingested with food  Lingual lipase-triglycerides broken down; released by tongue o As we swallow, the epiglottis closes the respiratory system o Peristalsis  Moves food through the esophagus into the stomach  Muscular movement (series of contractions) of material from the mouth to the stomach (through the esophagus) o Esophagus does not carry on any type of digestion, only a passageway for food to get into the stomach o Stomach  Some chemical digestion occurs  Lined with cells that release materials  pH of stomach is really low, around 2  contents are very acidic  gastric juice consists of  mucus-protects stomach from damage; coats stomach  protein digesting enzyme-  strong acid-  where consumption of alcohol takes place  ulcer happens to regions of the stomach aren’t protected, so gastric juices create holes in stomach o Chemical digestion in the stomach  pepsinogen (inactive form of pepsin) and HCl are secreted into the lumen of the stomach  HCl converts pepsinogen to pepsin  pepsin helps activate more pepsinogen  pepsin begins the chemical digestion of proteins  sphincters in stomach help to regulate how much food enters and exits stomach  Small intestine o major organ of chemical digestion and absorption o absorption-absorbing materials into the blood system o highly vascularized o chyme mixes with the digestive juices from the pancreas, liver, and gland cells in the intestinal wall o pancreas- structure where insulin is produced; has cells that produce enzymes; main structure that regulates our glucose o alkaline pH (8 or 9) o small intestine is well adapted for absorption o surface area increased by  folds in the intestinal lining  fingerlike projections called villi  tiny projections on the surface of the intestinal cells called microvilli o arterial blood system-red o venus system-blue o veins lead to heart o arteries lead away from the heart  Large intestine o Also called the colon o Has a pouch (cecum) near its junction with the small intestine which bears the appendix o Contains large populations of E. coli which produce important vitamins o Absorbs these vitamins and water into the blood stream o No chemical digestion occurs here  Appendix o Vestibular organ- something left in our body that does not have a purpose  Food processing o Occurs in 4 stages: o Ingestion-occurs through mouth o Digestion-mechanical & chemical breakdown o Absorption-nutrient molecules enter body cells o Elimination- gets rid of undigested material  Breakdown of macromolecules o Protein  protein-digesting enzymes  amino acids o Polysaccharide/disaccharide  carb-digesting enzymes  monosaccharides o Nucleic acid  nucleic acid-digesting enzymes  nucleotides o Fat  fat-digesting enzymes  fatty acids/glycerol  Digestion of carbs o Digestion of carbohydrates is performed by several enzymes. Starch and glycogen are broken down into glucose by amylase and maltase. Sucrose (table sugar) and lactose (milk sugar) are broken down by sucrase and lactase, respectively  Digestion of proteins o Protein digestion is a multistep process that begins in the stomach and continues through the intestines  Digestion of lipids o Lipids are digested and absorbed in the small intestine o Mechanical and chemical digestion of food takes place in many steps, beginning in the mouth and ending in the rectum  Know compartments of digestive system, what each compartment does, where mechanical and chemical breakdown begins, know enzymes involved & what they do, memorize macromolecules, & about eh digestive system 


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