Abnormal Psychology Week 1 Notes
Abnormal Psychology Week 1 Notes Psyc 2500
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by lucy allen on Thursday January 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2500 at University of Denver taught by Dr. Jennifer M Joy in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Denver.
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Date Created: 01/07/16
Abnormal Psychology Past and Present abnormal psychology: the scientific study of abnormal behavior in an effort to describe, predict, explain and change abnormal patterns of functioning -psychological abnormality: most definitions have certain features in common -"The Four D's" -does not have to meet all four, at least one -deviance: behaviors, thoughts and emotions that differ markedly from a society's ideas about proper functioning/social norms -distress: behavior, ideas or emotions usually have to cause distress before they can be labeled abnormal -dysfunction: abnormal behavior tends to be dysfunctional- it interferes with daily functioning -danger: abnormal behavior may become dangerous to oneself or others -behavior may be consistently careless, hostile or confused -exceptions to the four D's (accepted drinking level here vs. in Russia) -when psychological abnormality is discovered, must be fixed via treatment -treatment: or therapy, a procedure designed to change abnormal behavior into more normal behavior -according to Jerome Frank, all forms of therapy have three essential features -sufferer seeks healer -a trained, socially accepted healer is chosen -a series of contacts between the healer and the sufferer change 'abnormal' functioning to 'normal' functioning -each year 30% of adults and 19% of children/adolescents in the US display serious psychological disturbances and are in need of clinical treatment -in addition, most people have difficulty coping at various times Ancient Views/Treatments -the work of evil spirits -stone age -treatment: trephination and exorcism Greek and Roman Views and Treatments -500 B.C. to 500 A.D. -move into medical logic/interpretation -Hippocrates believed and taught that illnesses had natural causes -unbalance of the four fluids, or humors -treatment: rebalance Europe in the Middle Ages: Demonology Returns -500 to 1350 A.D. -the church rejected scientific forms of investigation -demonology reemerges The Renaissance and the Rise of Asylums -1400 to 1700 A.D. -demonological views decline -the mind was susceptible to sickness as the body/care improves through humane and loving treatment of people with mental disorders -unfortunately, this time also saw a rise of asylums (institutions) Nineteenth Century -reform and moral treatment -as 1800 approaches, the treatment of people with mental disorders began to improve once again -care that emphasized moral guidance and humane/respectful techniques -by the end of the nineteenth century, the moral treatment movement started to reverse -by the early years of the twentieth century long-term hospitalization became the rule once again -factors that led to the reversal of the moral treatment movement -we lacked understanding and treatment methods -financial lack Early Twentieth Century -dual perspectives -late 1800s, two opposing perspectives emerged -somatogenic perspective: abnormality stems from the body -physical causes -biological approaches yielded mostly disappointing results throughout the first half of the twentieth century -in the 1950s a number of effective medications were finally discovered -psychogenic perspective: abnormality stems from the mind, psychological causes -hypnotism -Freud/outpatient therapy -psychoanalytic theory and treatment Current Trends -43% of people surveyed believe that people bring mental health disorders upon themselves and 35% consider mental health disorders to be caused by sinful behavior -people with severe disturbances are cared for by -in the 1950s, researchers discovered a number of new psychotropic medications -antipsychotic drugs, antidepressant drugs, antianxiety drugs -led to deinstitutionalization and a rise in outpatient care -pros: reduces overcrowding, increases in quality of life -cons: treatment related problems increase homeless and jail population, patients left with little support -outpatient care has now become the primary mode of treatment -nearly 1 in 6 adults in the US receive treatment of psychological disorders in the course of a year, the majority for fewer than 5 sessions -development of programs devoted exclusively to one kind of psychological problem -growing emphasis on preventing disorders and promoting mental health -the community mental health approach has given rise to the prevention movement -many of today's programs are trying to -correct the social conditions that underlie psychological problems -help individuals at risk for developing disorders -energized by positive psychology movement -today's leading theories and professions -theoretical perspectives -psychoanalytic: past childhood experiences and unconsciousness affect current behavior -Freud -Erikson -biological -neurotransmitters -medications -behavioral -Skinner -Pavlov -cognitive: -humanistic-existential -inherent good -Rogers -sociocultural: behaviors are a result of the society's views on abnormality and what is acceptable behavior Research -the systematic search for facts through the use of careful observations and investigations -clinical researchers must consider different cultural backgrounds, races and genders of the people they study -they must always ensure that the rights of their research participants, both human and animal are not violated -case study: provides a detailed interpretive description of a person's life and psychological problems -can't generalize this information, only pertains to one individual -correlation method: the degree to which events or characteristics vary with each other (relationship) -examples: are stress and onset of mental disorders related? -are family conflict and mental disorders related? -can be a positive/negative correlation, or NO correlation -the magnitude (strength) of a correlation is also important -high magnitude, low magnitude (+1, -1) -advantages: can generalize findings -can repeat/replicate studies on other samples -difficulties: results describe but do not explain a relationship -results say nothing about causation -experimental method: variable is manipulated and the manipulation's effect on another variable is observed -manipulated variable is the independent variable -observed variable is the dependent variable -three features -control group: group of research participants who are not exposed to the independent variable but whose experience is similar to that of the experimental group -random assignment: any selection procedure that ensures that every participant in the experiment is as likely to be laced in one group as another (ex: coin flip) -blind design: participants are kept from knowing which group they are in/observing -single blind: patients are kept from knowing which assigned group they are in -double blind: neither researcher nor patients are told which group they are in -alternative experimental designs -not easy to devise an experiment that is both well controlled and enlightening -clinical researchers often must settle for designs that are less than ideal and include -quasi-experimental/mixed designs: investigators do not randomly assign participants to groups, but make use of groups that already exist -ex: children with a history of child abuse -natural experiments: nature manipulates the independent variable and the experimenter observes the effects -ex: natural disasters -analogue experiments: allow investigators to manipulate independent variables while avoiding ethical and practical limitations -induce lab subjects to behave in ways that seem to resemble real life -single subject experiment: a single participant is observed both before and after manipulation of an independent variable -helpful in development of treatment for one individual
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