Practice set of notes
Practice set of notes BIO 3304
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Notetaker on Thursday January 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 3304 at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Janet Donaldson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views.
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Date Created: 01/07/16
Respiratory System Gas exchange – oxygen into body releasing co2 Gas exchange site – CO2 out of blood stream, 02 in (high to low diffusion) – Thin most surface ( epithelium) <- one layer – Lots of capillary bed <- tiniest of vessels lined with squamous epithelium Gills – fish and some amphibians -Aquatic- thin surface but no moisture in water - Comes with a cost: 02 low concentration - Air about 21% oxygen - H2O - O2 concentration is less than 1% of air - Exchange is more difficult because still diffusion - High to low - Gills must be efficiently designed - Typical Gill design - Five pairs of gills, some four - Amphibians have 3 - Blood enters gills at back end of gill region - H20 (with O2) enters at front of gill region Counter Exchange mechanism - O2 diffuses as long as there is a gradient from high to low concentration - O2 from H2O diffusing into deoxygenated (O2 poor) blood - Entire length of gill region Urinary System – cont Kidneys – help conserve water - Vertebrates – pairs - Fishes - simple - Mammals birds and reptiles (more complex) o Metanephric Kidney (most advance) – advanced kidney drained by a ureter, lots of nephrons, filer (blood) at much higher pressure Structure of Kidney: Nephron – filters and cleans the blood Ureter – Tube draining from kidney to urinary bladder Urinary Bladder – storage Urethra – tube that can release particles from the body Nephron: Functional unit of the kidney - humans 18L Blood filtered/day - a million nephrons per kidney (humans have 2) - Composed of: o Renal Corpuscle –glomerulus (large capillary bed) Bowman’s capsule (surrounds it) Glomerulus – (filters blood) glomerular filtrate gets filtered out Bowman’s Capsule – Receives GF and surrounds Glomerulus o Renal Tubule – carries the waste aka receives GF from BC Proximal Tubule Lower loop Distal Tubule Collecting duct - Process of filtering blood out is in 3 stages – removes wastes, saves goodies, conserve H2O o (1) Filtration – Glomerulus/Bowman’s Capsule o (2) Reabsorption – Proximal tubule(60%) – removing the material out of the Glomerulus filtrate – take something out of the tubule and keeping them in the body o (3) Secretion – Distal Tubule – moving materials from the tissue fluid into the tubule Structure of Nephron: Look at figure in book Vertebrate Nephron Differences: Fresh H20 Fish - Concentration of environmental ions < conc. body ions - Environment Water > body H2O o Constant intake of H2O but not active drinkers (do not drink) o Large Glomerulus o Short Tubule – not to reabsorb H2O o Dilute waste – ammonia Salt H2O fish - Concentration environment ions > ions body concentration - Environment water concentration < body H2O concentration - Constant loss of H2O – drink salt water - Store ions in tissues - Small glomerulus - Long Tubule – get back H2O - Concentrated waste material Mammals - Loop of Henle - o Lower loop of tubule is greatly constricted to slow down the flow of glomerulus filtrate By slowing it down – allows more absorption of water and more goodies reabsorbed Allows more concentration of wastes into tubules Allows the waste product to be 20x more concentrated o Plan/Goal: concentrate the waste, minimize goodies, minimal H2O = waste product (urea) Endocrine System – Chap 50, Table 50.1, 50.2, figure 50.1 Hormone control and body function - Signaling molecules - caries the signal to another part of the body o Types: Neurotransmitters (Nerve system) Pheromones – body scent (attract or repel) Hormones –chemicals produced in one part of the body transported in the blood stream transported to another to cause a response (move through blood stream) specific target cells o Endocrine glands Ductless – no tubes Receive the raw materials from the blood and secrete their products into the blood stream (secreting a hormone across the membrane into the blood stream) o Exocrine Glands Ducts – have tubes leading to and away (sweat glands) Discharge their secretions onto a surface or into a cataract (gall bladder) - Few vertebrate Endocrine glands o (1) Hypothalamus/Pituitary Gland – housekeep and controls homeostasis below this is the pituitary gland Hypothalamus – produces releasing hormones that regulate pituitary hormones FSH-RH: follicle stimulating hormone – releasing hormone LH-RH: luteinizing bormone – release hormone Pituitary (anterior) -secretes hormones that regulate other endocrine glands Gonadotropins o FSH o LH Thyrotropins – act on thyroid gland Adrenocorticotropins - adrenal gland Growth Hormones – stimulates cell division for growth particularly muscle growth Prolactin hormone – stimulates milk production in mammary glands Melanophore – stimulating hormone, pigment cells Pituitary (posterior) Vasopressin – acts on the kidney to restrict urine flow Oxytocin – educes two responses – stimulates the release of milk from the mammary glands – stimulates muscle contraction of the uterus to assist childbirth o (2) Metabolic Hormones & Associated glands Thyroid gland – thyroxin – promotes the normal development of the nervous system Adrenal glands Cortisol – an anti-inflammatory hormone Aldosterone – promotes tubular reabsorption in kidneys Epinephrine (adrenaline) Norepinephrine (noradrenaline) Digestive hormones Gastrin – stimulates the release of hydrochloric acid into the stomach Cholecystokinin – dual fuctions – 1 stimulates gall bladder to contract and release bile salts into the duodenum -2 - stimulate the pancreas to release enzymatic juices into the duodenum Reproductive System Asexual reproduction – - Lacking cells - One parent - No gametes (sex cells) - No reproducing organs (usually) - Produces genetically identical offspring (cloning) - No genetic variation - Result of Mitosis/cytokinesis - Simple, energetically cheap, fast 1) Binary Fission – the parent divides mitosis into two mostly equal parts a. No animals, protozoan 2) Budding – unequal division of an organism where an out growth of a parent (called the bud) develops into a new individual a. Bud breaks off and makes a new individual – Phylum Cnidaria (jellyfish) 3) Gemmulation – when a parent dies or degrades a gemmule breaks off a. a gemmule (encapsulated bud) b. Phylum Porifera 4) Fragmentation – multicellular organism breaks into two or more parts and each fragment can become an individual organism a. Phylum Platyhelminthes Some animals exhibit both asexual and sexual reproduction – good environment-asexual bad environment-sexual Sexual reproduction – - Gametes (sex cells – egg and sperm) - 2 parents (normally) - Energetically expensive – more energy from female side - Takes time – longer than asexual - Most higher animals reproduce sexually - Genetic Variation – offspring is different - Gametes – result of Meiosis/cytokinesis - Fertilization – fusion of egg and sperm gametes = new genetic combo - Egg (1N=23) + Sperm(1N=23) = Zygote (2N=46 fertilized egg) 1) Hermaphroditism –both male and female reproductive organs a. Monoecious – condition of both sex organs in the same body b. Some fish - sex reversal i. One fish would release egg and sperm c. Self fertilization – Worms – (uncommon) d. Cross fertilization (most common) i. Transfer of egg and sperm two different living beings – each still have both sex organs though 2) Parthenogenesis – development of an embryo from an unfertilized egg a. Sperm may/may not initiate the development REPRODUCTION OF OVUM WITHOUT FERTILIZATION 3) Biparental sexual reproduction a. Two individuals b. 2 sex organs c. 2 sex cells d. Dioecious – the condition of separate sex individuals e. Reproductive patterns: modes - 3 in vertebrates i. Oviparous – the condition of eggs being laid outside the female body 1. Exhibited by – fish, amphibians, birds, reptiles, and some mammals(3) 2. Most common 3. Fertilization can be internal and external 4. Eggs are laid and abandoned (sea turtles, lizards, snakes) or have extensive care (birds) ii. Ovoviviparous – the condition of the fertilized egg being retained by the female with no maternal connection when the offspring are born live 1. Fertilization is internal 2. Embryonic nutrition from the yolk of the egg 3. They’re born in an egg but immediately when egg is release they break out of the egg iii. Viviparous – the condition of live-bearing with a maternal connection 1. Placenta 2. Fertilization is always internal 3. High degree of parental care and protection 4. Most advanced form – offspring are born in more of an advanced state 5. Development with in oviduct or uterus 6. Nourishment and gas exchange occurs with in the placenta 7. Some Reptiles and Mammals (except 5) a. Mammals have the highest rates of offspring survival Why sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction? - Sexual is more costly, takes more time, complex structures, more energy on the female side so why more common than asexual? - ADVANTAGE – Unique genetic variation in sexual reproduction o Some individuals can survive tough environmental conditions and changes o Natural selection – measure of the differential survival and differential reproduction o Asexual reproduction – result of Mitosis/Cytokinesis Natural selection could wipe out all if they do not have good genes (genetic variation) Susceptible to extinction Vertebrate Reproductive System - Origin and maturation of Germ Cell (germal – gonads - reproductive organs) - Primordial germ cells – originate within yolk sac of the egg and then migrate into the dorsal wall - Vertebrate Gonads (ovary & testis) – arise from a pair of “genital ridges” along the dorsal wall of embryo; migrate to the lower region 1) Male reproductive system a. Gonads – testis (testes) i. Develop in abdominal cavity and descent into the scrotum ii. Inside testes: 1. Compartments/sections Seminiferous tubules a. Site of sperm production 2. Leydig cells – located between the compartments (seminiferous tubules) in the testes 3. Sertoli cells – inside the seminiferous tubules and provide nourishment to developing sperm and other cells involved in sperm development b. Male Duct system i. Epididymis – beginning portion of duct work – enlarged portion of tube where sperm is stored and fully matures ii. Vas deferens – the longest portion of the duct system involved in sperm transport – moves sperm out iii. Ejaculatory duct – rapid transport of sperm during ejaculation iv. Urethra – carries both sperm and urine c. Copulatory Organ i. Penis – with urethra d. Accessory glands – add secretions into the male duct system, Sperm does not actually pass through glands, Help make up fluid that sperm swim in i. Seminal Vesicle – produce prostaglandins, fructose (carbohydrate for sperm nutrition), and lubricating oil to help with sperm transport 1. Prostaglandins - chemicals that stimulate smooth muscle contractions in the female reproductive tract ii. Prostate gland – secreting liquid iii. Bulbourethral glands – secreting liquid Hormonal control of male reproductive system - hypothalamus > pituitary - -FSH LH - FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) triggers the sperm production in seminiferous tubules - LH (luteinizing hormone) – stimulates leydig cells to secrete testosterone - Testosterone - For the development maturation and maintenance required for the developed o 2 ndarcharacteristics Increase skeletal muscle mass Increase in bone density Thickening of vocal chords Slower vibration of vocal chords - Spermatogenesis – the stages of development required for the production of sperm o Spermatids -> spermatozoa o Acrosome – head of sperm - system of penetration to ovum (egg) o Midpiece of sperm – abundant with mitochondria o Tail – flagellum 2. Female reproductive system - Ovary – production of egg and to produce female gametes o Estrogen and progesterone - @ Puberty about 400,000 ova per ovary (potential eggs) - Primordial cells producing ova form during embryonic development - Oogenesis – the creation of an ovum (egg cell) o Polar body - Mechanism for the cell – produces two haploids that aren’t eggs - Oviduct – uterine tube – tube leading from the ovary to the uterus – normal site of fertilization – not connected to the ovary but overhanging it o Uterus – implantation site –attached by placenta Placenta – consist of embryonic and maternal tissues – connecting organ (umbilical cord) Lining of uterus – endometrium – builds up with tissue and vessels/capillary beds o If fertilization And implantation – endometrium/uterus continues to develop; hormones from mother and fetus maintain it o If no fertilization and implantation – endometrium sloughs off and discharged - Cervix – opening - Vagina – birth canal - Vulva – external genitalia; labia majora, labia minora, clitoris FIG. 51.8 o Homologous – two things have same origin o Analogous – comparing two things with the same function - Hormonal control of female system: o Hypothalamus - -- FSH-RH / LH-RH---- > Pituitary - - FSH and LH o Ovarian follicle = ovum + surrounding cells Variable stages of maturation Follicle cells secret – mostly estrogen and some progesterone Estrogen – development and maturation and maintenance in female reproductive system o Thicker layer of fat under skin o Corpus luteum – remnant of follicle – called the yellow body – after ovulation – > release of egg and secrets mostly progesterone and some estrogen Progesterone – promote gestation - Timing of reproduction o Timing of environmental cues and internal cues from hormonal activity o Estrous cycle (most mammals) – narrow window where a female is considered to be fertile (ovulation) Monoestrous – one cycle (deer, bears) Diestrous – dogs Polyestrous - many times a year – rodents, rabbits o Menstrual cycle – 28 day uterine cycle Ovarian effects/cycle – days 1-13 follicular phase – dominant hormone is FSH Day 14 ovulation – follicle ruptures and releases the egg (LH – stimulate secretion of esterone) Days 15-28 Luteal – LH – promote gestation o Uterine Effects (menstrual) uterine cycle Days 1-5 menstrual phase – outer portions of endometrium gets torn apart and is discharged – loss of blood Days 6-14 proliferative phase – increase in estrogen and building up of endometrium Days 15-28 secretory phase – increasing progesterone o 1N egg(23) + 1N sperm(23) = 2N Zygote(46) single celled structure = fertilized egg Animal Development Poles determine future axes of embryo Vegetal – often larger blastomeres – more yolk Animal – less yolk, more cytoplasm, smaller blastomeres Only the animal pole divides - ends up with a blastoderm(a flattened disk of cells) Fertilization is stage 1 – internal or external, sperm and egg form a zygote(fertilized egg) Holoblastic cleavage – entire or complete – the 2nd division produces two equal sized blastomeres - After 1 division animal pole divides faster than the vegetal pole In mammals – fertilization and cleavage are in the oviduct - Implants on uterine wall Gastrulation – 3 nd stage division - the blastula goes through a series of steps to form the gastrula Begins when a band of tissue pinches in to create opening -> blastopore Gastrula – 3 distinct germ layers and Primordial (future) germ cells 1. Endoderm – produces the gut tract, thyroid gland, respiratory tube, liver, pancreas, lungs, 2. Mesoderm – produces the heart, kidneys, skeletal muscle, notochord, connective tissues (blood), and appendages/limbs 3. Ectoderm – produces cells of the epidermis, neural tube (nervous system) Invagination - Procession pushing in of the outer cells and produces or forms blastopore - In Chordates and Echinoderms (deuterostomes – blastopore becomes anus) - Archenteron – displaces blastocoel to become digestive tract of embryo Primordial germ cells – made to develop into gametes – specialized group of cells that are produced near the notochord and migrate to future sites of the gonads - May arise independently of 3 germ layers - 2 functions of Primordial Germ cells o Protect/propagate genetic content of species o Undergo meiosis to produce gametes (egg or sperm) Notochord – mesodermal – derived structure providing rigidity along dorsal axis of embryo – derives phylum Chordata – produces signaling proteins to establish tissue patterns – HOX GENES DEVELOP - By the time the notochord has formed the dorsal ectoderm cells above the notochord thicken into a neural plate Neurulation - Stage 4 – neural tube development from ectoderm, dorsal to the notochord - All neurons and supporting cells of the central nervous system originate from the neural tube - Neural plate – thickened ectodermal cells around notochord - Cells on each side of the Neural plate fuse to form an enclosure - Neural Crest cells – unique to vertebrates o Cells overlying dorsal portion of neural tube o These cells migrate to other regions of embryo to form all neurons and supporting cells of PeripheralNS th o Sometimes called “4 germ layer” Organogenesis – stage 5 – tissues become organized into functional organs composed of specialized cells - Organs – 2 or more tissue types - Each germ layer gives rise to different organs - Many form during or just after neurulation - Organs become functional at different times of development - Controlled by HOX GENES
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