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Week 11 Notes

by: Kira Gavalakis

Week 11 Notes HIST 225 0021

Kira Gavalakis
GPA 3.4

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About this Document

notes for week 11 HIST225
U.S. History
Richard Meixsel
Class Notes
HIST225, history, American History, U.S. History, US History, General Education, midterm, Study Guide
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kira Gavalakis on Friday April 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 225 0021 at James Madison University taught by Richard Meixsel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see U.S. History in History at James Madison University.


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Date Created: 04/08/16
Tuesday 4/5/16    Why did the United States enter the war?  1. Financial commitment to the Allies  a. War was economic boom for US  b. Our money was going towards Britain and France  2. Shared principles of Democracy  a. Opposition to German militarism  b. Not everyone was pro­British  3. German attacks on American neutrality  a. Sinking of the Lusitania because Germans didn’t want America and Britain to  trade (?)  b. “Unrestricted submarine warfare” beings early 1917, America declares war with  Germany in April 1917      America at War:  What was its contribution to victory?  ● America didn’t determine the strategy    ● The Donkeys ( ​1961)  ● German 210mm GUNS­ artillery was the big killer of soldiers in the war of 1914­1918  ● War of attrition­ US didn’t have any tactics  ● US needed, “men, men and more men”    ● Germans end the war agreeing to an armistice (Armistice Day, 11/11)    Problems of Peacemaking  Wilson at Versailles    Why did the US enter the war?  1. Financial commitment to the allies  2. Shared principles of democracy  3. German attacks on American neutrality  And...  4. How could we influence the post­war peace, if we were not actively involved in fighting  the war?    ● “Peace without victory,” ­­Wilson, January 1917 (before we enter the war)  ● “Fourteen points” speech, ­­Wilson, January 1918  ○ End to secret treaties, establish League of Nations    Wilson’s New World Order  ● Spread democracy because democracies did not engage in wars of conquest  ● An end to trade barriers would reduce tensions that led to war  ● A “league of nations” rather than arms and alliances would be the key to international  order    There were two problems: One was the Europeans    The reality of Versailles  ● Britain would not accept freedom of the seas  ● “Open diplomacy” was conducted behind closed doors  ● Peace without victory became the “war guilt clause” for Germany  ○ Made the Germans resentful and determined to “get even” when the opportunity  presented itself in the future  ● Self­determination for some; but other border realignments just created new problems    The other problem was the US    Opposition to the Treaty *** in textbook  ● November 1918 elections gave control of Congress to the Republicans  ○ President Wilson did not involve Republicans in the peace negotiations, even  though he needed a Republican­dominated Senate to approve any treaty (Art II,  Sec 2 of the Constitution)  ● Irreconcilables­ did not want anything to do with a League of Nations  ● Reservationists­ not necessarily against a League of Nations but wanted restrictions on  its authority over the United States  ● Opposition to Article 10­ did it commit nations to using force to maintain the peace and  guarantee territorial integrity?     The Twenties  Events of 1918­1919  ● Influenza­ killed 500,000 Americans (more American soldiers died of this than at the  hands of the Germans)  ● “Red Scare” generated by Bolshevik (Communist) Revolution in Russia and bombing  campaign in US *** in textbook  ● 1919­ more strikes than in any other year of American history  ● Chicago White Sox threw the World Series!    ● Manufacturing inexpensive consumer goods (electric mixer, the vacuum, refrigerator,  washing machine)  ● Age of consumption  ● Instant gratification, fulfillment with consumption  A consumer culture  ● A society in which the majority of people seek fulfillment and defines identity through  acts of consumption  ● New values like, “instant gratification” rather than self­denial, restraint, saving for the  future, and so on (the supposed values of the older generation)  ● “Problems” resolved through consumption    The automobile: Backbone of Industry  ● 1900 → 300 firms produced 4,000 cars  ● 1922 → Ford produced 2 million cars  ● 1927 → one car for every 5.3 people in the US; in France one for every 44 people; in  Germany one for every 196    Model T cost went down    Automobiles encouraged consumption  I.e. General Motors Cadillac → different styles of cars came out every year so your car could  complement your personality  ­ Promote dissatisfaction so people buy new cars    ● Clyde Barrow (Bonnie and Clyde)­ “I always prefer to steal a Ford.”    Car industry set up credit for consumers (so people can get a loan)    ● Mass entertainment!  ● 1929 40% houses had radios  ● Film industry!     Increasingly homogenized America… people dressing the same way, buying the same  products, watching the same movies, but this creates tension in society because of this new  culture    Culture Clash *** In textbook  ● The Triumph of Nativism (Immigration Restriction)  ● “National Origins” or Immigration Act of 1924  ● Instituted a permanent quota system, with total immigration capped at 164,000 based on  percentages (2 percent) of ethnic origins shown in 1890 census  ● Example: Italy’s quota was 3,845, great Britain’s was 65,361          Thursday 4/7/16    Culture Clash  ● The Triumph of nativism (Immigration Restriction)  ● The Second Ku Klux Klan  ○ Earlier KKK was in South, this one is in the Midwest (OH, IN, TX, OK, OR)  ○ 100% Americanism­­ no more immigrants!  ● The Scopes Trial  ○ Can’t teach evolution­ too secular  ○ Similar to Plessy vs. Ferguson­ separate but equal    Politics of the 1920s  Resurgent Republicanism    Warren Harding (1920)  ● “I can handle my enemies; it’s my damn friends I have to worry about!”  ● ^^^ Corruption during Harding Administration  ● Trickle­down theory of economics    Calvin Coolidge (1924)  ● Coolidge Joke: “Did you hear that former president Coolidge was found dead?” ­­“Really!  How could they tell?”    Herbert Hoover (1928)  ● Hoover is “certainly a wonder and I wish we could make him president of the United  States. There would not be a better one.” ­­ FDR    The Great Depression   (under the Hoover Administration)  ● “Great Engineer”  ● Said he would donate presidential salary to charity    Why Depression? ***in textbook  ● The Stock Market Crash, 1929?  ○ Shares decreased by about 40%  ● Depressed Agricultural prices and farm closures  ● Lack of diversity in economy  ● Overproduction of consumer goods    “... all of the policies of the New Deal failed to end the Great Depression; it ended when the  United States began rearming in 1941...” ​n Economic History of the US  ­ So… in order to end a depression, go to war  ● Depressions happen about every 25­30 years  ● But this Great Depression is the only one that doesn’t go away immediately and  becomes a worldwide depression    Some figures:  ● National income:  ○ $87.4 billion in 1929  ○ $41.7 billion in 1932  ● By 1932, 20­25% national unemployment with higher statewide numbers:  ○ 50% in Cleveland  ○ 80% in Toledo  ● Bank closures to 1933 wiped out $7 billion in savings    ● Hoover believed the Great Depression was only temporary  ○ Government never did anything to help the depression and it would go away  ○ Hoover believes he should do the same­ as it got worse, he looked bad  ○ Democrats were trying to embarrass Hoover  ○ Hoovervilles, Hoover flags, “Hard times are still Hoover­ing over us”    Election of 1928­ Almost all the states  Election of 1932­ only took 6 states     FDR  ● Had the draft of a speech against high tariffs, another supporting it, and told his speech  writers to mesh the two together  ● New Deal  ● Willingness to try new things  ● Confident grin  ● Attempted assassination of FDR, but wounding others  ● Fireside addresses    Road to Recovery?  ● Bank holiday  ○ Emergency Banking Act, 9 March 1933­­ this bill was passed unanimously by the  house (seven “no” votes in the Senate​nread by any member  ● The hundred days­­ 15 major pieces of legislation    National Recovery Administration  ● Government­Sanctioned cartels  ● Industrial compacts and codes to set wages, hours, and working conditions  ● Part of the National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)      Civilian Conservation Corps  ● A work­relief program  ● 3 million young men employed; paid $30 a month (had to send $25 home)  ● National forests; flood control; beautification projects    Public Works Administration  ● First of the major “make­work” programs of the New Deal  ● Allotted $3.3 billion for public works (idea is to put money into people’s pockets quickly)  JMU was built using PWA project money!    Problems  ● Conservatives thought that New Deal programs were corrupting “American Ideals”­­ FDR  was going too far!  ● Radicals saw the Great Depression as proof that capitalism was dead­­ FDR was not  doing enough to recognize that reality!  ● And economic indicators did not indicate that much recovery was taking place    Floyd Olson of Minnesota and the Farm­Labor Party    Upton Sinclair  ● Democratic candidate for Governor of California in 1934  ● Epic­­ end poverty in California program; seize idle lands and factories and turn them  over to workers’ and farmers’ cooperatives    Huey Long of Louisiana  ● “Share our wealth society” (1934)  ● FDR: Long was “one of the two most dangerous men in the country.”  ● DICTATORSHIP    The “Second” New Deal  ● Social Security Act (1935)  ● WPA­­ Work Progress Administration  ○ $11 billion works program (included the ex­slave interviews)  ○ Nation’s single largest employer  ● Wagner Act, or National Labor Relations Act (1935)                             


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