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Geo Ch. 3 Notes

by: Jamila Ruffin

Geo Ch. 3 Notes GEO 101

Jamila Ruffin
GPA 3.5
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About this Document

notes from Ch.3
The Dynamic Earth
Laura Whitaker
Class Notes




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jamila Ruffin on Thursday January 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEO 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Laura Whitaker in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 10 views.


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Date Created: 01/07/16
Geo Ch. 3  The cave’s largest crystal found is 39ft in length and 13 ft in diameter and 55 tons in  weight Why study minerals?  Makeup of the rocks and sediments  Raw materials for manufacturing chemicals for industrial use  In building machine/ tools parts  Energy resources  For jewelry  MINERALS ARE THE BUILDING BLOCKS OF ROCKS What is a mineral? 1. Naturally occurring solid – produced in nature. Not man­made. Has its own shape. 2. Formed by geological processes 3. Has crystalline structure­ aka crystalline lattice. Made in a specific way. 4. Has defined inorganic composition­ chemical formula to express the composition Composition of Minerals Elements Building blocks of minerals More than 100 elements Atoms Smallest particles of matter Rocks­> Minerals­> Molecules/ Atoms Atomic Structure Nucleus­ protons & neutrons Electrons­ nucleus & located in energy shells Chemical Bond Types: 1. Ionic 2. Covalent 3. Metallic 4. Van Der Waals Ionic Bonds  Based on connection b/w opposite charged ions  Ion­ atom that has gained or lost electrons  Cation­ atom that has lost electron & has a positive charge  Anion­ atom that has gained electrons & has extra negative charge Covalent Bonds  Atoms share electrons to achieve electrical neutrality Metallic Bonds  Electrons migrate among atoms, good conductivity *Ex­ copper & gold Van der Waals Bonds  Weak attractive force between electrically neutral atoms/ molecules   No electrons available to form bonds *Ex­ graphite  Chemical reaction­ process that involves breaking chemical bonds and building new ones Structure of Minerals  Minerals are orderly array of atoms bonded to form a crystalline structure  Different patterns will pack into different arrangements  Orderly arrangements give minerals symmetry *Ex­ salt  Polymorphs­ minerals with the same chemical composition but different atomic  arrangement How do we identify minerals?  By observation  Performing simple tests  System of several physical properties are used to identify hand samples of minerals  called : Primary Diagnostic Properties Diagnostic Properties 1. Crystalline form­ external expression of mineral’s internal structure 2. Luster­ appearance in reflected light (categories­ metallic & non­metallic) 3. Color­ colorations of minerals produce gemstones 4. Streak­ color of mineral in its powdered form 5. Hardness­ resistance of a mineral to abrasion or scratching 6. Cleavage­ tendency to break alone planes of weak bonding 7. Fracture­ absence of cleavage when a mineral is broken 8. Specific Gravity­ weight of mineral divided by the weight of equal volume of  water 9. Others­ magnetism (magnetite), taste (NaCl), smell (sulfur), double refraction  (calcite)  There’s nearly 4000 different minerals  Most of them are silicon (largest group of minerals on Earth)


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