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Geology 105 Earth History Notes: Week 3

by: Hansss

Geology 105 Earth History Notes: Week 3 GEOL 105 - 02

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About this Document

Notes from Week 3: January 26th and 28th!
Earth History
Erin Beutel
Class Notes
Geology, magnetic fields, the big bang theory, atmos, formation of elements
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hansss on Thursday January 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 105 - 02 at College of Charleston taught by Erin Beutel in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Earth History in Geology at College of Charleston.


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Date Created: 01/07/16
Geology 105 Earth History: Week 3 Notes 1/26/16 Formation of the Solar System  All of the mass today exploded from one point o Protons, Neutrons, & Electrons The Big Bang Theory- Fling elements into space  Hydrogen & Helium  Gravity causes hydrogens to get together & form one big clump  Clump grows  Eventually get huge  gravity pulls together  When you compress things- generate heat  heat gets hot enough to cause super speed & fusion cascades into massive nuclear ball = star Heat from the center rises and moves to the outside Blue: cooler atoms Orange: warmer atoms Red Shift  Stars closer to use look bluer because they are moving closer  Stars far from us look redder because they are moving further away 1. The Big Bang Theory was so hot, so we should see background radiation when we look deep into the past 2. The Big Bang Theory not only predicts that this glow should exist, but it should be visible at microwaves, part of the electromagnetic spectrum **All in reference to the red dots (radiation) seen in space What happens when we run out of hydrogen & helium?  The sun collapses on itself because the elements are too big to get into each other, therefore they aren’t stable  blow up (b/c there’s too much energy in the little ball) o This could also lead to a black hole- which could mean there are more elements that we don’t see or know about  Why does this happen? o The laws of physics apply across the universe Iron has more mass- easier for it to pick up clumps of other stuff  Giant dust clouds (except now with all possible elements formed)  Beings to spin & condense  Center forms new sun  Elements in cloud form clumps (gravity)  Each clump attracts more material  Planetesimals form (little planets) **Planets are molten due to the heat from all of the asteroids  Planetesimals bombarded with asteroids  Heat up = molten  b/c ductile their spin makes them round **Density of elements being to separate as it moves but something massive hits earth & knocks off a moon sized piece of Earth, creating our moon  molten blob of earth  gets hit (around 4.7 billion years ago)  giant blob flung off  moon  then earth cools enough for Fe (Iron) & Ni (Nickle) core to sink **Supernovas of the sun create all the other elements  Iron made after the moon collision  Silica rises to the surface Composition of Meteorites  Meteorites have some composition of whole earth  All meteorites are 4.7 billion years old  leads us to think that is when our whole universe was forming 1/28/16 Earth has a Magnetic Field  Solid Fe (Iron) core surrounded by liquid Fe core interacts with electrical field of sun to generate magnetic field  Other planets don’t have a liquid outer core like Earth o We have enough latent heat (heat left over) to have liquid o Weight of earth creates ton of pressure at solid, inner core, keeping it a solid o Warmer atoms rise because low pressure o Cooler atoms sink, become more dense, high pressure  Planets like Saturn and Jupiter made mostly of gas, b/c of warm atoms & low pressure  Where are we getting that residual heat? o Crystallization generates heat, change of state, radiogenic isotopes decaying in the Earth  Earth’s magnetic field protects us from the solar wind  the magnetic field deflects the elements from the sun  Northern lights- solar wind interacting with magnetic field  Earth is one of the only planets with a magnetic field…we can NAVIGATE o Compass aligns with field th th  First used for navigation in China- 11 century and in Europe- 13 century  The position of the magnetic north pole…IT MOVES o Why?  The core doesn’t spin on the same axis  Declination- angle between magnetic north & geographic north N NW  Iron rich rocks record the magnetic field (basalt, gabbro, peridotite)  Magnetic Field- preserved in rocks, tells us where rocks were  Inclination- angle between the magnetic field & the surface of the Earth o Helps birds navigate?  Iron-bearing platelets in their beaks  Change in inclination of magnetic field recorded in rocks changes with time Vocabulary Earth’s crust  Layers divided by composition  Layers dived by physical properties Crust, Mantle, Core Age of the Moon? Age of meteorites?  Between 4.4 & 4.5 billion years old Age of Earth  Oldest earth mineral: Zircon from Australia  4.375 billion years old: + or – 6 million years  Just 100 million years after the moon impact  Formation: o Earth was a molten ball cooling  The surface was mushy  No atmosphere  Some Hydrogen (H) & Helium (He)  No water o Needed to form atmosphere


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