History 105: First 5 Lectures
History 105: First 5 Lectures HIST 105
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GEOL 105 - 02
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christian Benson on Thursday January 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 105 at University of Oregon taught by Prof. Furtado in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 225 views.
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Date Created: 01/07/16
Lecture 1 - (1/6/16) Big Question #1: Why did the Nomadic threat to sedentary peoples recede in Central Asia? Istanbul = Constantinople (This was an important location on the silk road) Islam spread along the silk road Muslims became middlemen between Chinese goods and European goods and could mark up prices Innovation and exchange (windmill, paper, spinning wheel, magnetic compass, astrolabe) Chinese had compass back in 200 BC (important to ocean voyages, although they didn’t use it for that yet) th Every educated person in the 15 century knew the earth was round Silk road routes to the north (land routes) attacked by Mongols (Genghis Kahn) Genghis Kahn created the largest land empire in the history of the world (Mongols) The Mongol way of war: Not heavily armored like western Europe, light bow and no chainmail or heavy swords, horses have long hair Highly mobile cavalry – surprised people with speed, horses didn’t need daily grain Siege tactics – killed everyone except engineers and forced them to work for them Terror as a weapon: Baghdad was center of islam, took Baghdad and ended Islamic golden age (killed 200,000 people) Islam was vocal about their disagreement with Mongol shamanistic religion (they were monotheistic) – not interested in assimilation Kublai Khan – Grandson of Genghis Khan (1 Yuan emperor of china in 1294) Yuan dynasty lasted until Ming dynasty – Han people came up Pax Mongolia – happened in century after Augustus started Pax Romana, longest peace period Kublai Khan’s innovations: Foreigners at court, use of chinese advisors, china as a main focus for governance, adoption of chinese imperial rule, direct contact between east and west, strong trade support with silk road, rapid and reliable communications Marco Polo (1260) – went to Beijing and met with Kublai Khan Black Death (1348) – Mongols brought it around with them, bubonic plague, brought on collapse of Mongols 1368 Ming dynasty started (Hongwu emperor): first encyclopedias, movable block printing, expansion of great wall, efficient governance Lecture 2 – (1/8/16) Bubonic plague – 1348 (fall of Mongols) Big Question #2: How did ottomans build land empire that lasted 450 years? Seljuk empire (1037-1194): Islam, wealth going through Constantinople because of the Byzantines Ottoman dominated eastern Mediterranean with their navy The ottoman empire, safavid empire (1501-1722), and the Mughal empire (1526-1857) (descendants of Mongols in India) were all considered “Gunpowder empires” Military loyalty – give people land so that people follow them (Fief) Build new power base – Janissary Janissary were Christian slaves taken when they were 12 as a tax, first uniformed soldier (actually created opportunity for these kids, not necessarily completely bad) Set up revenue system: Beg (local chieftain), Divan (Imperial Council), Vizier (Prime Minister) Viziers started off as Janissary slave, still technically slaves but had power Ottomans liked carpets and tapestries: shows wealth, people don’t want to get on their bad side when they see wealth Support religion: not just Islam (tolerant of other religions), but only monotheistic ones (Jews, Christians, people of the book) Sharia (Islamic Law): Persian language used for poetry, Arabic used for Qur’an, Caliph was secular and religious leader Attack infidels as a distraction Protect minorities: Islam actually more tolerant of other religions than other religions, contrary to contemporary belief Lecture 3 – (1/11/16) The politicization of the Indian Ocean Why did China mount, then abandon, its 15 century maritime exploration? Why did Spain and Portugal pioneer western expansion, and then lose influence? Zheng He’s Voyages (1405-1433): Establish Chinese impression, make an impression, assert imperial control over indian ocean trade, hunt down predecessors? Possible. Cannot claim mandate of heaven if he doesn’t kill predecessor Had fleet of 317 vessels: 7 dragon ships (giant and magnificent ships that were more a representation of ability and not necessarily meant to use, could break on waves) Treasure ships (390-408 feet by 160-166 feet), Horse ships (399 by 138 ft), Supply ships (257 by 115 ft), Troop transports (220 by 83 ft), warships (165 by 128 feet), also brought water ships Kangnido map (1402): from Zheng He’s voyages, very accurate along chinese shoreline, general layout elsewhere was correct but sizes were inaccurate Brought gifts with them to show they come in peace and to assume they would submit to emperor: tributes asked for, brought back things like giraffes or cool rare things that they didn’t need Why did they stop? Mongol thread (one time, the mongols even captured the emperor from a fleet), economics, restoration of Confucian scholars Ming dynasty built most of the great wall in the 15 century due to mongol threat although it had already started throughout history Confucian scholars were emperor’s main guys Confucian scholars blamed all of the bad on unichs (castrated people) in power to gain power for themselves again (initially unichs had power because they were thought to be the most rational because they didn’t have sexual urges) Hongwu emperor got tired of all the gifts that came from people Zheng He met: this went against Confucian values of respecting the wishes of previous emperors) Ottoman navy controls most of the Mediterranean basin Spice islands: had to travel through Mediterranean to get there, dangerous but very valuable Venice had vantage point, made them very wealthy: only worked if the Ottoman navy is nice to them, Christian vs. Islam doesn’t help that, Ottomans beat Charles V in 1538 Ottoman threat drove trade south: exploration of cape of good hope (southern tip of Africa) Western Europeans were also hostage against Venecian prices, who were hostage against ottoman prices Winds made it hard to go back up Africathcoast: invented Portugal caravel with Lateen sail – 15 century Christopher colombus (1451-1506) 1453: fall of Constantinople to ottomans, gateway from Mediterranean to black sea, important location, pushed trade south, resulted in eventual discovery of new world, ottoman dominated trade Lecture 4 – (1/13/16) Lateen Sail: travel against wind new world discovery Joao II, king of Portugal (1458-88) Columbus underestimates distance across oceans: he thought it was 2600 but more like 6500 miles Trying to get funding from different countries for journey: rejected by Spain and Portugal Henry VII (England) accepted: didn’t hear about that in time, went with King and Queen of Spain who also decided to accept Vasco de Goma sailed around southern Africa tip proving that was possible 1602: VOC (Dutch East India Company): Holland, for 21 years only merchants could go get trade goods Takeover of India (1556- 1738) How did tiny England take over India from the Mughal Empire? Mughals had big empire and England had no empire, England pop was 4 M and Mughal pop was 100 M, England major export was wool and Mughals was luxury goods, England was Christian and Mughal was Muslim and Hindu, England trade interest was cotton, luxury goods and spices and Mughal only wanted silver 1600 – English East India Company: spread risk to private businesses Taj Mahal – “crown of palaces” 1632-53 Coastal trading companies in India were easiest to deal with because least imperial rule Fragmentation of Mughal empire o External threats: Safavid empire invades in 1649 o Internal threats: Hindu separatists trying to get rid of Muslim rule o Hyderabad and Bengal secede: don’t want to be part of empire anymore (biggest locations, important) Why did the Europeans colonize the new world and not the other way around? Hernando Cortes (1458-1547) o Awhile after Columbus arrival in Bahamas, heard rumors from island people of land to the west (Central America) Cortes explores west, founds Veracruz in 1519, meets Totonaes at Zempoala 20,000 Totonaes pledge to Cortes and 10,000 march with him to find Meshika Cortes finds 2 white people that shipwrecked and were captured by Mayans: Gonzalo Guerro and Geronimo de Aguilar Guerro actually went back to Mayans eventually and let them, taught them Cortes keeps looking for wealthy city with fierce warriors Dona Marina (1496-1551) o Tribe impressed by steel armor and gave them women as gifts o Dona could speak Spanish Mayan and mashika Lecture 5 – (1/15/16) It was critical that Dona Marina can speak 3 languages Tlaxcala were most important allies in taking over Aztecs o Powerful and lived right next to Tenochtitlan (magnificent city where Aztecs were) Tlaxcala were happy they could fight Aztecs did sacrifices to gods to give the gods power Spanish fought with the Tlaxcala the first time they met later meeting 4 of their lords who were impressed by bravery and technology Tenochtitlan was a city built in the middle of a lake which gave them power and respect Massacre at Cholula o Told by Dona marina that they planned on attacking them o Spanish slaughtered them all 350-400,000 people in Tenochtitlan o They sacrificed 50,000 people per year and up to 7,000 a day sometimes, could see blood on temple for miles Wore gold armor and cotton fabrics Could only wear cape if noble, social class clothes Montezuma II: knew they were coming but bore gifts not military Brings Spanish into city, tries to keep the captured Spanish capture him in his own palace Cuban government was looking for Cortes because Cortes didn’t have permission to explore, violated orders Cortes leaves Tenochtitlan to handle that situation, officer in charge decides to slaughter everyone doing a ceremonial dance, everyone else got pretty mad about that Cortes gets back and gets trapped back inside Tenochtitlan La Noche Triste (7/1/1520) o Run away with all Spaniards o Many died, lost artillery and stole o Gold o Lost 50 percent of Spanish o They left disease behind like smallpox and measles which set the stage for them conquering later 1492: 53 M in central America, Andes, and Caribbean 1650: decrease to 5.6 million o If this didn’t happen, Europe wouldn’t have conquered o Even still had difficulties conquering Cortes becomes on of richest men in world 1532- capture of Atahualpa “cacique” –chief Incans thought gold were tears of sun Spanish tried to get chief in all conquering situations, didn’t work out the best with Montezuma Incans invited Spanish to meet and talk, ceremony. Spanish came in and were violent: took over and ruled Inca Why didn’t Aztecs and Incans come to Europe first? No horses, no domesticated plants, no ecology, probably no boats India: British east India Company (1720s): Sepoys hired to help protect British outpost French/English rivalry – fuels fire 1742 – French nationalize EIC; ally with princess, French loses Canada to English st Major general Robert Clive: 1 baron Clive “Clive of India” (1751- 60) o Empire now primary goal o Trade secondary
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