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PSY20, Week 1, Professor Sereno

by: Bayann Alkhatib

PSY20, Week 1, Professor Sereno PSY 201

Marketplace > University of Oregon > Psychlogy > PSY 201 > PSY20 Week 1 Professor Sereno
Bayann Alkhatib
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History of Psychology: “some ideas that have led to the current approach to psychological science” 1. Philosophical Developments (Monism vs Dualism) (Nature vs Nurture) • The Mind and Body Pr...
Class Notes
psych, Psychology, mind, brain, monism, dualism, function, Broca
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bayann Alkhatib on Thursday January 7, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 201 at University of Oregon taught by Sereno in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.


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Date Created: 01/07/16
PSYCH201 Week 1 Bayann Alkhatib History of Psychology:  “some ideas that have led to the current approach to psychological science” 1. Philosophical Developments (Monism vs Dualism) (Nature vs Nurture) • The Mind and Body Problem: Are the mind and  body distinct and separate, or is the mind  simply the physical brain’s subjective experience? • Dualism: DESCARTES: there are 2 kinds of substance: mental substance (the soul) and  physical substance (the body). The soul gets information from the body and then makes  decisions and directs the body. • Monism: HOBBES: Concept of spirit/soul is meaningless. Conscious thought is an  epiphenomenon (product of the brain’s machinery; it does not cause things to happen. • Nature vs Nurture Where does knowledge come from? ­ Nurture: human knowledge and thoughts come from physical experience.  (learning, culture, experience, environment) ­ Nature: thought and ideas are innate; we are born with knowledge.  (innateness, genetics, biology) 2. Localization of Function: Physiology (19th century) • Idea the specific parts of the brain serve specific functions in the control of experience and behavior.   E.g., Broca the physiologist. Had a patient who understood language but couldn’t  communicate it. After his passing, his brain was examined and there was a hole in his  brain, that area on the brain is now called “Broca’s Area.” In the Wernicke’s area, damage  there can proceed difficult in language comprehension. Damage in the Broca Area can  produce difficult speaking.  E.g. #2, Spinal cord damage can damage the sensory or sense of skin. • Two main points for Localization of Function: ­ Evidence for physical (brain) basis of mental processes ­ Evidence for natural divisions among mental processes 3. Evolution (Charles Darwin) •  Charles Darwin (1859): living things have inherited their present shape, structure,  behavior, etc. through a long history involving natural selection. Interested in the functions of behavior: how behavior functions to help an animal survive • Natural Selection: characteristics useful for survival are passed on (through reproduction) • Humans and animals differ only in their evolution history. 4. Origin of Experimental Psychology • German Experimentalists: studied simplest kinds of mental processes: simple  sensations, memories, and judgements. E.g., Subtractive Method: light flashing experiment • Introspectionism (Wundt): the study of conscious mental events by “introspecting” or  “looking within” (observing and recording one’s own thoughts and experiences)     Cons :  1.   Variability: one person’s impressions are often very different from another;s 2.   Verification: lack of public access to introspections: “can’t access someones  thoughts” 3.   Reliance on consciousness: many interesting mental events are unconscious  (e.g., memory retrieval or the visual processes that lead to perceptual  illusions) 4.   Provides access to products of things, rather than the processes that  underline it.  • Structuralism (Titchener) and others used introspection to break apart and examine  the individual components of conscious experience. Reaction against structuralism: ­ Functionalism (William James): Emphasis on the purpose and functions of the  mind. Ultimately, observing structure and function are both useful. ­ Gestalt Psychology (Wertheimer): organized shape, whole form. Whole organized forms are meaningful units of consciousness, not elementary parts. “The whole is  greater than the sum of its parts.” (the balls aren’t in motion, they’re just flashing on  and off). • Behaviorism: Watson (1912): reaction against introspection as method:  ­ Behaviorism emphasized the study of observable environmental effects on  behavior.  ­ Ideas and mental states (i.e., the mind) are not worthy of the study. What we can  study and understand is behavior. ­ Focus on learning—behavior is shaped by experience ­ Skinner: “The Behavior of Organisms” (1938) and “Beyond Freedom and Dignity”  (1971) Origins of Experimental Psychology 1. Cognitive Psychology (1960s) • The mind once again became a focus of study • The study of people’s ability to acquire, organize, remember and use knowledge to guide  behavior. • Make inferences about the mind through observable behavior 2. Cognitive Neuroscience— today’s dominant approach • Study behavior and the brain • Interested in both structure and function • Interested in both genetics and environmental/experiential influences Research Methods 1. The Scientific Method and its Application to Psychology • A scientist: is curious, skeptical, creative and humble before the evidence • Cause and Effect: science assumes that events occur in a lawful order— there is cause  and effect. Cause precede effects • Goals of Science: to describe, catalogue and classify events (behavior and thought). Casual explanation. Prediction. Application. 3. Types of Studies • Experiment ­ 2+ variables ­ Manipulate one (Independent Variable) and measure the other (Dependent Variable) ­ Try to show causation • An experiment attempts to identify a cause­and­effect relationship between 2 variables  by manipulating one variable and observing the effect on the other. • Steps in an experiment: (1) Formulation of the question/theory (2) Formulation of specific hypothesis (3) Design a study • Define variables: some state or dimension that can have different variables,  which can be measures. two kinds: ­ independent: this is the thing that is hypothesized to be the cause of the effect.  SET THIS UP. ­ dependent: this is hypothesized to be affected by the independent variable.  MEASURE THIS. • Experimenter manipulates the IV to see if it has an effect on the DV. (4) Observations (collect data) (5) Critical evaluation of the evidence (analyze and interpret data) (6) Communication • Correlation: ­ 2+ variables. ­ Interested in their relationship. ­ NOT manipulate the variables. Measure them. ­ IMPORTANT: Correlation does not imply causation • Description: ­ e.g., opinion poll 


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