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Week 1 - Thursday

by: Allison Notetaker

Week 1 - Thursday Psy 201

Allison Notetaker
Cal Poly

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PSY 201 - Introduction to Psychology Class notes 1/7/16 Ch. 2 The Measure of the Mind
Introduction to Psychology
Dr. Freberg
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allison Notetaker on Friday January 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 201 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Freberg in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.


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Date Created: 01/08/16
Week 1 – Thursday Yesterday: case study, naturalistic observation, surveys, correlations (not cause) Ch. 2 – Experiments - independent variables - dependent variables o hypothesis = always takes the form: if I do A, then B will happen o A is the independent variable o B is the dependent variable (depends on A) - control and experimental groups o control = baseline for an experiment (ie. non­loneliness) - random assignment to groups o everybody signing up has an equal chance of being in any conditions offered by  experiment o evens out any individual differences we might have o self­choice/ self­assignment skews data  “quasi” experiment  by using multiple methods of experimentations, we think that reality will be  exposed in the long run Professor McCoy is interest in the effects of sleep deprivation on caloric intake in college  students. Groups of participants are awakened after 4, 6, 8 hours of sleep, and their daily  calories are measured. Which of the following is Professor McCoy’s dependent variable?  Dependent: The number of calories participants consume.  Independent: The amount of sleep participants are allowed. Studying time - cross­sectional studies o take a bunch of people of different ages and give them a test o most often shows that test results decline with age o don’t control for “cohort effect”  ie. age cohort – different childhood experiences based on generations o “Flynn effect” = standard IQ test average has increased dramatically in the past few  years - longitudinal studies o controls for Flynn effect o follow the same people over time - mixed longitudinal studies o take a cross­ section of ages and watch them over time o incorporates both cross­sectional and longitudinal studies How do we interpret data? - valid and reliable measures o important aspects of measures o to be valid means that you do what you’re suppose to do, or what you’re advertised to  do (ie. IQ test, SAT, ACT) o ie. single subject SAT’s are more valid than main SAT - descriptive statistics o describe your data, do not interpret o central tendency = shape of your data  mean = average  median = halfway point  mode = most common answer (not always present) o the normal curve  bell curve using standard deviations o correlations  similarity relationship on a scale of 0­1 Which of the following represents the mode of these scores: 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 4, 5, 5, 5, 5 Answer: 5 Inferential Statistics - How does our sample compare to larger populations? o Small population conclusions to general population o Analysis of variance, T­test, etc. (statistical tests) … “statistically significant results” - Statistical significance o Must be careful in our interpretation of data o May find conclusions, but variance of data may not be applicable to generalize Research Ethics - “do no harm” - ie. Unethical experimentation = poor black, African­American men with syphilis were watched  and not given information about antibiotics  - public domains follow government guidelines (ie. public universities = Human Subjects  Process) - human participants o no coercion o informed consent  participants must be given enough information in order to decide o no harm o confidentiality  no one should be able to match up your data to you  no identifying information of the participants in your research - animal subjects o clear purpose o excellent care  ie. random vet checks, cleanliness, nutrition, health o minimal pain and suffering  what does this mean from the animals point of view?  uses community standards for human society when need to euthanize an animal


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