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Week #2: Finding Maximum and Minimums

by: Anna Huryn

Week #2: Finding Maximum and Minimums MA 231

Marketplace > North Carolina State University > Math > MA 231 > Week 2 Finding Maximum and Minimums
Anna Huryn
GPA 3.1

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These notes cover week #2 and how to find max and mim
Calc Life Management B
Mr. Glen Sidle
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna Huryn on Friday January 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MA 231 at North Carolina State University taught by Mr. Glen Sidle in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Calc Life Management B in Math at North Carolina State University.


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Date Created: 01/08/16
Macromolecules Macromolecules = small organic molecules joined together to form larger molecules  There are four major classes of macromolecules (small organic molecules joined together to form larger molecules): o Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids Polymer = a long molecule consisting of many monomers Monomer = the smaller repeating units of polymers Carbohydrates:  Carbs = sugars  The simplest carbohydrates are monosaccharides o Disaccharides = two monosaccharides  Ex. Maltose, sucrose, lactose o Polysaccharides = polymers of many monosaccharides  Ex. Starch, glycogen, cellulose, chitin Lipids (Fats):  Unlike other macromolecules, lipids do not form polymers, they are formed from two small molecules: triacylglycerol or triglyceride  They are hydrophobic  Main function is energy storage o A gram of fat stores twice as much energy as a gram of a polysaccharide such as a starch  There are several types of fatty acids: o Saturated fatty acid  Ex. Animal fats o Unsaturated fatty acid  Ex. Plant and fish oils Steroids = lipids with a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings  Cholesterol is an important component in animal cell membranes  Many are hormones  High levels of cholesterol can contribute to cardiovascular disease Week #1: BIO 183 with Miriam Ferzli Anna Huryn Macromolecules Macromolecules = giant, organic molecules  There are four main groups of macromolecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids Polymer = a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds *Carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids are polymers (chain molecules) Monomer = the repeating units that serve as the building blocks of a polymer  Monomers are connected by a reaction in which two molecules are covalently bonded to each other through loss of a water molecule, this is known as a condensation reaction or dehydration reaction because a water molecule is lost; hydrolysis is the reverse dehydration reaction and breaks down monomers by adding water molecules Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates = sugars and polymers of sugars  The simplest carbs are monosaccharides or simple sugars  Glucose is the most common monosaccharide Disaccharide = two joined monosaccharides Ex. Maltose, lactose, sucrose Polysaccharides = macromolecules, polymers with a few hundred to a few thousand joined monosaccharides *serve as building materials and storage material Starch = a storage polysaccharide of plants Glycogen = a polysaccharide which animals store Cellulose = a polysaccharide that is a major component of the tough walls that enclose plant cells *cellulose is the most abundant organic molecule compound Chitin = the carbohydrate used by arthropods to build their exoskeletons *similar to cellulose Week #1: BIO 183 with Miriam Ferzli Anna Huryn Lipids: Lipids = compounds that have no affinity for water  Lipids are mostly hydrocarbons  Lipids include: waxes, fats, phospholipids, and steroids Fat = constructed from two kinds of smaller molecules: glycerol and fatty acids Fatty acids = a long carbon skeleton  In making a fat, three fatty acid molecules each join to glycerol by an ester linkage (a bond between a hydroxyl group and a carboxyl group) Triacylglycerol (triglyceride) = a fat containing three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule Saturated fatty acid = a structure of saturated with hydrogen Unsaturated fatty acid = a structure with one or more double bonds, formed by the removal of hydrogen atoms and the carbon skeleton *a fat made from a saturated fatty acid is called a saturated fat *most animal fats are saturated  The major function of fats is energy storage (a gram of fat stores more than twice as much energy as a gram of a polysaccharide such as starch) Phospholipid = a lipid similar to a fat but with only two fatty acids attached to glycerol *when phospholipids are added to water, they self-assemble into double-layer aggregates (bilayers) that shield their hydrophobic portions from water *at the surface of a cell, phospholipids are arranged in a similar bilayer + the heads are on the outside of the bilayer in contact with aqueous solutions + the tails are on the inside of the bilayer away from water *the phospholipid bilayer forms a boundary between the cell and its external environment Steroids = lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings Cholesterol = a steroid that is a common component of animal cell membranes Week #1: BIO 183 with Miriam Ferzli Anna Huryn Proteins:  Proteins account for more than 50% of the dry mass of most cells, they: o Speed up chemical reactions o Provide structural support o Provide storage o Help transport o Aid cellular communications o Aid movement o Provide defense against foreign substances Enzymes = proteins that regulate metabolism by acting as catalysts Catalysts = chemical agents that selectively speed up chemical reactions in the cell without being consumed by the reaction Polypeptides = the polymers of amino acids Protein = a macromolecule consisting of one or more polypeptides folded and coiled into specific conformations Amino acid = organic molecules possessing both carboxyl and amino groups *at the center of an amino acid is an asymmetrical carbon or alpha (a) carbon Week #1: BIO 183 with Miriam Ferzli Anna Huryn *the carbon is then bonded to an amino group, carboxyl group and a hydrogen atom •A protein’s specific conformation determines its function. •Four levels of structure primary structure: unique sequence of amino acids secondary structure: segments of polypeptide chains repeatedly coiled or folded tertiary structure: determined by interactions among various R groups quaternary structure: when two or more polypeptides join to form a protein •Changes in pH, temperature, or other factors can unravel or denature a protein. Nucleic Acids: • Nucleic acids are polymers made of nucleotide monomers. • Two types of nucleic acids: ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) • A gene (unit of inheritance) consists of DNA • A nucleotide consists of three parts: a nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group.


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