Psychology 202, Week 1 Notes
Psychology 202, Week 1 Notes PSY 202
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Cochrane on Friday January 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 202 at University of Oregon taught by Pennefather J in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see Mind and Society >2 in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 01/08/16
What is Psychology? -the study of the mind, brain, and behavior. -mind: mental activities (thoughts, beliefs, experiences) -behavior: observable actions What do Psychologists do? -help patients -study the mind and brain -can have jobs where they don’t work with patients Psychology Is About Everyone: -Psychology is the most popular major in colleges and universities. -Psychology is personally relevant to everyone. Why Do Psychology? -The science of psychology helps us make examined conclusions which leads to our understanding of how people feel, think, and act they way they do. Intuition and Common Sense: -Many people believe that intuition and common sense are enough to bring forth answers regarding human nature. -Intuition and common sense may aid queries, but they are not free of error. Hindsight Bias: the “I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenon -Hindsight Bias occurs when people believe they could have predicted an outcome of an event after they learned about the outcome of that event. (Ex: we all knew Apple stocks would rise after the release of the new Apple product) Seven Themes of Psychological Science: 1. Psychology is an empirical science • The scientific method: objective, systematic procedures used to understand what is being studied. • Understanding how science is conducted makes it possible to tell which studies are credible and which studies are not. 2. Nature and nurture are inextricably entwined • Psychological characteristics are a product of biologically innate or acquired through education, experience, and culture. • Psychologists now widely recognize both nature and nurture as important in the shaping of characteristics. 3. The brain and mind are inseparable • Rene Descartes’ theory of dualism ◦ Maintained the distinction between mind and body ◦ Assigned the body many mental functions previously considered the mind’s domain 4. A new biological revolution is energizing research • Growth in understanding mental activities ◦ biological bases ◦ growing interest in how biology permeates psychological science 5. The mind is adaptive • The brain has evolved over millions of years to solve problems related to survival and reproduction • The mind is adaptive in biological and cultural terms (i.e. genetic mutations) • Theory of Evolution ◦ determining whether human mechanisms are adaptive ◦ need to be aware of the challenges of our ancestors in order to understand our current behavior (ex. sweet and fatty foods) • Mating Preferences ◦ males look for youthful appearing females in order to pass their genes into the future. Females look for maturity, dominance, affluence and boldness in males. (Good genes surviving) • Solving Adaptive Problems ◦ humans have “cheater detectors" ◦ visual cliff: infants won’t crawl over the cliff, even if their mothers are standing on the other side encouraging them to do it. ◦ Adaptive mechanisms enhance our chances of survival. • Culture provides adaptive solutions: ◦ Dependency on group culture ◦ Cultural evolution has been much faster than biological evolution ◦ There is evidence that people from different cultures possess different minds 6. Psychological science crosses levels of analysis • Four levels of analysis reflect the most common research methods for studying behavior: ◦ Biological ▪ The psychical body contributes to mind and body ▪ Neurochemical and genetic processes ◦ Individual ◦ Social ▪ Group contexts affects people’s way of interacting and influencing each other ◦ Cultural ▪ Different culture shape thoughts, feelings, and actions of the people in them 7. We are often unaware of the multiple influences on how we think, feel, and act. (ended slide 23) W.E.I.R.D. Science • Over the history of psychology, the majority of studies have used W.E.I.R.D. populations: ◦ Western ◦ Educated ◦ Industrial ◦ Rich ◦ Democratic • Cultural Psychology is a subfield of psychology that attempts to determine how culture influences out behaviors, thoughts, motives, perceptions, etc. We Are Unaware of Influences on How We Think, Feel, and Act • People are influenced by subtle factors in their environments, even when they largely are unaware of those influences. • Some factors influence our thoughts, feeling, and behaviors at an unconscious level. Reflections on Development • Biological influences: ◦ Shared human genome ◦ Individual genetic variations ◦ Prenatal environment ◦ Sex-related genes, hormones, and physiology • Psychological influences: ◦ Gene-environment interaction ◦ Neurological effect of early experiences ◦ Responses evoked by our own temperament, gender, etc. ◦ Beliefs, feelings, and expectations • Social-cultural influences: ◦ Parental influences ◦ Peer influences ◦ Cultural individualism or collectivism ◦ Cultural gender norms • these things all lead to personal development A Short History of Psychology Experimental Psychology Begins with Structuralism • History of experimental psychology: ◦ William Wundt developed the method of introspection ▪ introspection: a systematic examination of subjective mental experiences that requires people to inspect and report on the content of their thoughts ◦ Edward Kitchener pioneered structuralism ▪ structuralism is based on the idea that conscious experience can be studied when it is broken down into its underlying components Functionalism Addresses the Purpose of Behavior • William James ◦ Critiqued structuralism ◦ Coined the term “stream of consciousness" Gestalt Psychology Emphasizes Patterns and Context in Learning • Second school of thought opposed to structuralism • Personal experience is not simply the sum of its constituent parts • Perception of objects is subjective and dependent Freud Emphasized the Power of the Unconscious • Sigmund Freud is a key figure in the history of psychology ◦ Much of human behavior is determined by mental processes operating below the level of conscious awareness, at the level of the unconscious. Most Behavior Can be Modified by Reward and Punishment • John B Watson ◦ challenged the focus of psychology on the conscious and unconscious mental processes ◦ proposed the idea of behaviorism, an approach the emphasizes environmental effects on behavior. Cognition Affects Behavior • George A. Miller defined the field of cognitive psychology • Concerned with higher-order mental functions such as intelligence, thinking, language, memory, and decision making. Social Situations Shape Behavior • Social psychology ◦ Focused on the power of the situation and on the way people are shaped through their interactions with others Psychological Therapy Is Based on Science • A humanistic approach to the treatment of psychological disorders ◦ Developed in the 1950s • Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow ◦ Emphasized how people can come to know and accept themselves in order to reach their unique potential Psychological Knowledge Is Used in Many Professions • Psychological science’s content is of interest and value to many professions ◦ Physicians use knowledge of psychological science to better relate to their patients, determine how patients’ behaviors are linked to health, and learn what motivates patients to seek out medical care (or not) • Careers in which it is necessary to understand people are use psychological science. ◦ Lawyers, politicians, and advertisers ◦ Opportunities to people with graduate degrees expected to grow 15% between now and 2016 People Are Intuitive Psychological Scientists • By nature, humans are intuitive psychological scientists ◦ They develop hypothesis to try to predict and explain the behaviors of others Psychological Science Requires Critical Thinking • Critical thinking ◦ Systematic way of evaluating information to reach reasonable conclusions ◦ Thinking that is purposeful, reasoned, and goal directed ◦ Used in solving problems, formulating inferences, calculating likelihoods, and making decisions. Psychologists Adhere to a Code of Ethics • The American Psychological Association publishes a code of ethics that all its members must respect ◦ This code includes being respectful to all people, treating them with dignity, and protecting them from potential harm ◦ Ethical dilemmas Psychology Is Relevant to Every Person’s Life • The insights of psychology are critical in almost every sphere of our lives and its content ◦ Explicating how humans think, feel, and behave – it’s universal. Types of Psychologists • Clinical (roughly 54.6% of psychologists) • General experimental (3.2%) • Industrial and organizational (4.2%) • Personality, social, and cultural (4.4%) • Cognitive (5.3%) • Developmental (5.7%) • Neuroscience/biological (6.2%) • School/educational (7.7%) • Counseling (8.7%)
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