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Organic Chemistry 2230 Part A

by: Amanda Biddlecome

Organic Chemistry 2230 Part A Chemistry 2230

Marketplace > Clemson University > Chemistry 2230 > Organic Chemistry 2230 Part A
Amanda Biddlecome
GPA 4.0

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These notes are the notes covered on our first day of class. It is part one of a chapter of review from General Chemistry.
Organic Chemistry 1
Dr. Schroeder
Class Notes
Organic Chemistry
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Biddlecome on Friday January 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chemistry 2230 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Schroeder in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views.

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Date Created: 01/08/16
Organic  Chemistry  2230   Week  1  Notes   Remembering  General  Chemistry   Amanda  Biddlecome   January  8,  2016     1)  The  Chemistry  of  Carbon     -­‐carbon  is  the  most  important  molecule     -­‐shares  electrons  with  basically  everything     -­‐doesn’t  take  or  give  anything     -­‐anything  living  has  Carbon       2)  We  take  organic  because  it’s  everywhere     -­‐things  can  be  almost  identical  chemically,  but  a  tiny  difference  in  structure     can  change  everything       *simple  modifications  produce  big  changes     3)  Lewis  Theory     -­‐an  atom  gives  up,  accepts,  or  shares  electrons  to  get  a  completely  filled  outer     shell  (8  electrons)         *Octet  Rule:  Be  especially  careful  not  to  violate  this     4)  Ionic  Bonds=bonds  between  2  charged  ions     -­‐metal  and  nonmetal       5)  Covalent  Bonds=share  electrons,  no  charges     6)  if  you  share  electrons  equally,  it’s  nonpolar     7)  polar=when  electrons  are  shared  unequally     -­‐electronegativity=the  most  important  trend  that  we  learned  in  General     Chemistry;  causes  polarity       *on  the  periodic  table,  from  left  to  right  and  from  bottom  to  top,  the         electronegativity  increases     8)  Bond  dipoles     -­‐with  polar  bonds,  one  atom  will  have  a  partial  positive  charge  and  the  other     will  have  a  partial  negative  charge       *Examples  of  polar  molecules  are  HCl  and  H2O     -­‐Dipole  moment  measures  the  strength  of  the  polarity  and  increases  with     increasing  electronegativity     9)  Lewis  Structures     -­‐show  valence  electron  structure       -­‐central  atom  is  the  one  that  forms  the  most  bonds       *not  necessarily  the  most  electronegative  atom       *start  in  noble  gases  as  0  and  go  to  the  left  counting  up  and  that’s  how         many  bonds  they  form     Ne=0,  F=1,  O=2,  N=3,  C=4,  B=3,  Be=2,  Li=1       -­‐Formal  Charge=the  number  of  valence  electrons-­‐(number  of  lone  pair       electrons  +  ½  number  of  bonding  electrons)       *you  find  the  formal  charge  on  each  of  the  atoms  that  make  up  the         molecule  and  place  that  charge  beside  the  atom  in  the  Lewis  Structure     -­‐the  number  of  valence  electrons  corresponds  to  the  group  number     10)  VSEPR  Theory  (Valence  Shell  Electron  Pair  Repulsion)     -­‐negative  charges  push  away  from  each  other  to  an  extent  that  gives  us  shape     and  regions  of  electron  density       *this  let’s  us  find  geometric  arrangements  and  bond  angles     -­‐only  3  geometries,  regions  of  electron  density,  and  bond  angles       *Linear=180  degrees,  2  regions       *Trigonal  Planar=120  degrees,  3  regions       *Tetrahedral=109.5  degrees,  4  regions  


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