Chapter 6 Books
Chapter 6 Books SOC 351
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kiersten Notetaker on Friday January 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 351 at Washington State University taught by Monica Johnson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see The Family in Sociology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 01/08/16
Chapter 6: Sociology and Sexuality Three major areas of study o First approach: identities Focus on more on sexual identity and sexual orientation. Sexual identity is usually male or female Sexual orientation covers a broad spectrum of homosexual and heterosexual behavior Our identity and biology are the building clocks of sexual behavior, which creates the social reality of sexuality that we see around us Sexual Identity and Orientation People now distinguish sex for procreation from sex for pleasure Sex for pleasure has become an acceptable pursuit in a way that it wasn’t for America’s Puritan ancestors Sociologists define gender in terms of social categories and sex in terms of biological categories Sexual orientation: the pattern of romantic or sexual attraction to others in relation to one’s own gender identity Attitudes about Sexual Orientation Stigma: a quality that is perceived as undesirable and that sets a person apart from others in his or her social category Homophobia: Fear of or antipathy toward homosexuality in general and gays and lesbians in particular th Early in the 20 century, doctors considered same-sex attraction a mental disorder or disease (something that could be treated) In the last few decades, now scientists understand it is a naturally occurring situation Coming Out Coming Out: The process of revealing one’s gay sexual orientation to the significant people in one’s life Increasing homosexuality, intergenerational interactions show the friction between old and new attitudes. The Biology of Human Sexuality Need to know biological properties and processes influence social behavior and how actions in society may in turn change that biological playing field Where Does Sexual Orientation Come From In the last decade, research has focused on hormonal influences in the womb In terms of sexual orientation, that means that any biological influence can only be felt within the limits set by the society in which people develop and live Evolution and Human Sexuality Biological forces often operate in the background, exerting much weaker influence than contemporary social factors Sexual Behavior Sexual behavior is less constrained now than it was in the past for 3 reasons: o 1 – the potential to separate sex from reproduction through modern birth control has widened the possibilities for exploring partner without making long-term commitments o 2 – the greater acceptance of extramarital sex (sex outside of marriage) has reduced the social penalties imposed on those who pursue such relationships rd o 3 – the growing independence of young adults from their parents’ supervision – including living on their own before marriage Modern Intimacy Sexuality became part of the new intimacy of family life Divorce became more common The study of sexuality is still fraught with controversy The need to understand sexually transmitted diseases, especially the AIDS crisis starting in the 1980s, that led to greater scientific attention to sexual behavior Sex Before Marriage Extramarital sex also grew more common and acceptable A couple of generalizations that we have about sex: o Sex comes before marriage 95% of Americans have had sex before marriage o Men have more partners than women avg. age = 17 Men’s partners increase through adulthood o Having many partners is relatively uncommon 10% men and 7% woman ages 15 to 44 have had 3+ sexual partners o Sex without consent is relatively common 10% women 5% men said they didn’t want it to happen at the time Major change in sexual behavior has been the growth of extramarital sex, most sexual activity still takes place between people are in long-term relationships with an expectation of fidelity Men have more partners than women The Sexual Double Standard Sexual double standard: The practice of applying stricter moral or legal controls to women’s sexual behavior than to men’s Sex in Long-Term Relationships, and Not Married people on average have more sex Over the 20 century, sexual inhibitions declined as the pressure to have better sex increased Emotional expression within marriage was important – increased access to birth control and sex education, people experimented more Teen Sex Two reasons to take a closer look at the issue of teen sex o The facts are complicated – the proportion of teenagers having sex has fallen in recent decades, the nature of that sexual activity may have changed in important ways, and different behavior is concentrated in different groups o The consequences of teen sexuality – positive or negative – often depend on the circumstances under which it is experienced, endured, or enjoyed Adolescence: The period of development between childhood and adulthood The Pill Increased women’s independent—and private—control over their own reproduction Improved the effectiveness of contraception for millions of individuals and families Tinkering with women’s hormones has subtle and complicated long-term consequences What’s Going On? Fewer high school students having sex Teen sex is more oriented toward male than female desires Black adolescence have the highest rate of sexual activity At What Cost? Dutch parents vs American Parents o Dutch communicate more openly = less teen pregnancies Sexuality and Health Two issues relating to health and sexuality o Sexually Transmitted Infections o Erectile dysfunction Sexually Transmitted Infections 1980s is when awareness of STDs exploded AIDS was striking Since the 1980s there have been amazing advances in treating HIV/AIDS Education for Sexual Health Three issues: o 1 – Role of sex education It is essential to help people take the actions necessary to protect themselves Local, State and Health programs that attempt to shape sexual behavior Corporate interests such as those selling medicines or even pornography, seek to alter public behavior around sex as well Social Networks nd o 2 – Social Networks Infections can be thought of as tracers, marking the relationships between individuals who have sex Inequality o 3 – Inequality Racial inequalities have persisted or even widened in recent years A person’s sexual health reflects a combination of access to education, family structure, behavioral factors, and access to health care Erectile Dysfunction The failure of a man to achieve an erection 18 century divorce proceedings revealed only one woman who successfully had her marriage annulled because of her husband’s “sexual incapacity”
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