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HIST 278

by: Lynde Wangler
Lynde Wangler
GPA 3.836
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First week of lecture and readings notes
History of the Transatlantic Slave Trade
Lisa Lindsay
Class Notes




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lynde Wangler on Friday January 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 278 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Lisa Lindsay in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 105 views. For similar materials see History of the Transatlantic Slave Trade in History at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.

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Date Created: 01/08/16
HIST 278 – The History of the Transatlantic Slave Trade Week 1 Notes Northrup pp. 81-86, The Achievements of the “Numbers Game”  Philip Curtain’s book (The Atlantic Slave Trade: A Census) was the catalyst that sparked an era of modern research in Europe, Africa, and the Americas  Modern capabilities in research: tracking slave activities on an annual basis; embarkation/disembarkation on a port-by-port basis; link ports across the Atlantic and study changes over time; compute estimated mortality and study causal factors  Major emphasis has been placed on reconciling differences between number estimated to have arrived in the Americas and number estimated to have left Africa we have discovered some reasons behind this observation: losses of ships due to weather, pirates, privateers, and slave revolts; intra-American movement of slaves (largest was by land to Brazil); the TSTD2 (Transatlantic Slave Trade Database) can help scholars eliminate many uncertainties in regard to this conundrum  Nations’ Involvement: o Portuguese vessels thought to have accounted for the most traffic o British arrived late and left early with the abolition act of 1807 but dominated the northern wind while Portuguese dominated the southern traffic o Spanish were opposite of Britain in thaththey started strong but then reverted to little involvement in the 18 century only to reenter and dominate the north after the British took their leave o French involvement was largely dependent on war but similar to the Brits except they carried on for another ¼ centhry o Dutch were most heavily involved in the 17 century before British decimated its merchant marine  Destinations of TST 1519-1868(most to least): Brazil, British Caribbean, Spanish America, French Caribbean, Dutch/Danish Caribbean, British North America, Europe/Africa Lecture 1/14  Estimates: historians wondered about factual basis of numbers; people thought that Philip Curtain’s numbers were highly debatable when he used shipping records to arrive at the numbers (9.6 million arrived in Americas) and 11.2 (brought from Africa)  Other historians were then motivated to research this topic more in depth; 1999 Atlantic Slave Trade Database: international collaboration; were able to procure information such as ship’s name, captain’s name, owners, where slaves were taken from and where they were taken to, etc.  Information gathered from commercial and shipping records, as well as other sources including captain’s logs, slave/owner diaries, newspaper accounts, tax records, etc.  Modern Computed Numbers: 12.5 million departures from Africa; 10.7 million arrivals in the Americas (higher than Curtin’s est. but quite close)  Volumethf the Slave Trade Over Time (ppt. slide): peak period in second half of 18 century but also very high in period after  Where did slaves come from & where did they go? o 8 regions in Africa that can be clustered into 3  Upper Guinea  Lower Guinea  West Central Africa ***most slaves sent; largest region o Greatest to least – Brazil, Caribbean (British, French, Dutch/Danish), South America, Mainland NA (CHARLESTON), Africa o Major NA destinations – Chesapeake Bay, Georgia/South Carolina, Mississippi River Delta, New England (everywhere)  European Participants: o Portuguese (17 century) then British (peak 18 century) and then Portugal/Brazil again near the end – UK dominated when both Brits and Portuguese were actively involved o Also involvement from French, Dutch, Danish, Spanish, and United States


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