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## Day 1 Notes GC 444

by: Georgia Goodman

27

1

3

# Day 1 Notes GC 444 GC 4440

Georgia Goodman
Clemson
GPA 3.57

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These are research design notes we took on the first day of class
COURSE
Current Trends and Deviations
PROF.
Dr. O'Hara
TYPE
Class Notes
PAGES
3
WORDS
KARMA
25 ?

## Popular in Graphic Communications

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Georgia Goodman on Friday January 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GC 4440 at Clemson University taught by Dr. O'Hara in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Current Trends and Deviations in Graphic Communications at Clemson University.

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Date Created: 01/08/16
Research Design 01/08/2016 ▯ Why perform experiments?  To find answers  Improve our process o Increase efficiency o Remove waste o Improve quality  Develop new markets – potential opportunities to explore new technologies  Minimize risk o Predictability o Implementing change ▯ Applied vs. pure research  Applied o Attempt to solve a known problem o An exercise in practical problem solving o Industry wants an outcome  Pure o Knowledge for the sake of knowledge o What happens if…? o Explore, try new things ▯ What information do we want?  Predictability o Cause and effect o Correlations – link between two figures, but one doesn’t necessarily cause the other one to happen  Test assumptions  Simply see what happens ▯ Scientific method  Observation, define the problem  Develop theory  Make prediction  Test hypothesis  Interpret results ▯ Case study – flexo dot gain example in powerpoint slides ▯ Null hypothesis = no difference  Accept/reject null (significance)  If the probability of result occurring by chance is small = reject null o This test is statistically significant  If result can be attributed to chance = fail to reject the null  Assume more risk as you lower the level of probability o Typically 95% or 90% o As a doctor, not going to accept 5% risk ▯ Experimental design  Manipulate an independent variable o Experimental treatment  Control all extraneous variables o Match conditions or block effects o Biggest challenge  Observe/measure the predicted effect of the dependent variable ▯ Extraneous variables  Anything other than the experimental treatment that might affect the outcome  If not controlled, they represent threats to validity ▯ Validity and reliability  Validity – the degree to which the result, instrument, or experimental design does what it is designed to do – ACCURACY o Is the test meaningful? Appropriate?  Reliability – degree to which results are repeatable – PRECISION o Are the results consistent, or are they left to chance? ▯ Internal vs. external validity  Internal – degree to which the experimental treatment made the difference as opposed to extraneous variables o Threats: History, maturation, mortality, pre-testing, instrumentation, regression, differential selection, expectancy  External – degree to which results can be generalized o Threats: (PowerPoint) ▯ Experimental controls  Control group – use of a matched group not exposed to experimental treatment; reduces threats of history, maturation, instrumentation, and interaction of factors  Randomization – random selection reduces threats of regression, differential selection, and interaction of factors ▯ Sampling  Not cost effective to measure everything  Statistics allow inferences from sample of population  Sampling size (n = sampling size) o If bound (accuracy of instrument) is small, n must be large o If N is small, n must be small o If variance (difference) is small, n can be small o If probability of error (risk) is low, n must be large o If cost is high, n is preferably small ▯ Evaluation  Objective vs. subjective (PowerPoint) ▯ ▯ ▯

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