HIST3625 Week 2 Notes
HIST3625 Week 2 Notes History 3625
Popular in War in Europe and America Since 1500
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Chong on Friday January 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 3625 at Georgia State University taught by Dr.Robin Conner in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see War in Europe and America Since 1500 in History at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 01/08/16
Week 2: 01/19/2016 - 01/21/2016 Colonial/Native American Warfare 1. What was the nature of European, Indian and Colonial military cultures? What were the similarities/differences? 2. What effect did the collision of military cultures have in Colonial and Native societies? th th 3. How did Colonial wars change from the 17 to 18 century? What were the main differences? The war for empire versus the war for survival. Differences in Culture: European Military Culture: The focus was one discipline and drill to train farmers and peasants to become soldiers. The pressure in building and fortifying an army. o This begins to cause conflict between the Europeans and the Colonists. o The citizens dislike the increase in taxes and the loss of resources. This includes the supply and demand of food, shelter, care, etc. The European’s main focus is in protecting national interest, regardless of the citizen’s dislike. They are also focusing more on limiting collateral damage. To show their power, the European army was equipped with garish, obnoxious armour. Native American Culture: The Native American focused their warfare on honour, to enact revenge, or for defense, including religious warfare. This warfare resulted in fewer casualties compared to the European. o This could be due to less killings due to the root of their battles. The act of retreating is okay for the Native Americans, and is not considered shameful or dishonourable. The preparation for conflict starts from childhood. Children are conditioned both physically and mentally to fight a battle and/or war. Joining is a choice, they do not include drafting or forced service. Native American Tactics: Focused on guerilla warfare, using home field advantage, as well as taking advantage of the terrain. Unlike the Europeans, the Native Americans did not focus their attention on formation. Like the lack of formation, the Native Americans lacked formal rules to warfare, resulting in flexibility in their tactics. These individuals fought with hunting tactics, focusing their skills in marksmanship (targeting and shooting.) Colonial Military Culture: The Colonies lacked soldiers, resulting in the building of a Militia. o Every city in every colony built and maintained a local militia. They were further then used as a police force. o The South focused their Militia in slave patrol. Motherland England would send a quota for every colony to fill, and once filled, the colonies would begin to send volunteers to enlist for deployment. o Individuals were not expected to serve a lot of time and consisted of local contracts. Pequot War 1636 Based on the conflict between the Colonists and the Native Americans. The Native Americans felt threatened, and weak due to lost forces. o This drives them to want to join forces. “Collision” of Military Warfare Natives: no tactic/rules Colonists: open field warfare Belief that the Natives deserve to be “punished” for not being fair in battle. The Native Americans begin to emphasize on lethal warfare. Stealth and Tactic King Philips’ (Metacom) War (1675-1676) Native Americans lose autonomy to Colonial power o Metacom’s rise against the New England Colonists French and Indian War 1. What were their respective objectives? How were they achieved? 2. What issues do the British face? What is affected by different military cultures? 3. How/Why do the British Win? 4. What were the outcomes/consequences? “Skulking: a term based on adapting warfare and/or changing tactics. Focus The Native Americans fought for symbolic reasons. o This included obtaining captives with very low motivation for conquest. They also begin to skulk, this results in higher casualties. Purpose shifts from survival to warfare between the 17 and 18 century. Implications of Prior Colonial Wars Antagonism/stereotypes emerge between the Colonial Militia and British soldiers which instigate and promote the rise of conflict. The differences between the British’s and the Colonist’s agenda become apparent. The British’s main concern is maintain their empire in Europe, as well as in the Colonies. The British also begin to develop naval superiority over the French. The French and Indian War began in North America, but it soon spread out to Motherland Europe. o A lot of resources and money were used to support armies from both sides. 1740s: the Tension between the French and the Colonists go up. o This arises from the fight over Ohio Country. Ohio Country is controlled by the Iroquois Tribe, preventing transportation of goods. French Population: ~ 50,000, all stationed in the north, modern day Canada. o The French use their numbers to their advantage, influencing the Natives to become allies. o They do not pose as much of a threat to the Natives as much as the British do. English Population: ~ 1,500,000, spread throughout the East Coast. The French built a chain of forts to prevent the British from spreading across the land. o The forts could not be maintained due to the lack of man power. George Washington’s defeat at Fort Necessity He had no prior military experience. He was motivated to fight because his brother owned land in Ohio. He makes poor mistakes and decisions as a leader (i.e. the French Diplomat’s murder.) Fort Necessity: Poor structure for battle. 400 Men in a room spaced for 60, at the most. There was no water source for the soldiers. The Fort was in the middle of an open field surrounded by elevated terrain. The Fort was open for the elements, including rain, heat, wind, etc. Within the first 24 hours, he loses more than a quarter of his men due to illness/injuries, etc. It begins to rain during battle which forces Washington to surrender. Albany Plan of Union: Fails. Benjamin Franklin calls a meeting between all the colonies to unite in arms. The colonies refuse to cooperate. Objectives: 1. Britain: Protect uncooperative and aggressive colonies. 2. Colonist: Goal of expansion/conquest of the French and Indians as well as their land. 3. French: To hold down the fort and keep fighting on. 4. Indians: Goal to protect their own self-interest and resist European encroachment. 1755 Major General Edward Braddock takes command. Englishmen Braddock planned to use the Militia to fight for and protect the Colonists. He also expected the Colonists to listen to his command. This created conflict between the European style and command versus the Colonists’ style and command. MG Braddock planned to attack 4 forts at the same time. Robert Rogers: Rogers was an American Ranger Commander used as a scout. He wrote the guideline for irregular warfare. o 28 “Standing Orders,” also known as the “Rules of Ranging.” These are 28 rules are rules created by Rogers by combining tactics from different cultures and their styles to create a separate style that could be used as an advantage for battle. Croatian Pandur: Continental European men focused with light infantry. 2400 men, about 7 were Native scouts. o Every men trekked about 200+ miles of rugged terrain that encouraged them to want to build a road alongside as a supply line. Battle of the Monongahela, July, 1755 About ¾ of the troops are Natives in the French army. The British had approximately 1,000 troops, but they lose around 90% of their commanders. French lose about 40 individuals. The British begin to lose hope/morale and become nervous. o They begin to blame, as well as, abandon their equipment. o They also lose a lot of their papers/plans throughout the conflict. Secretary of State takes Command: William Pit His goal and focus is to protect the Colonists and drive the French out of American land. Promises to reimburse the colonists for their military expenses. French sends naval and sentries to pick off the British colonies. Jeffrey Amherst A methodical commander Excels in Siege warfare He is also older and more experiences. James Wolfe James is a younger, less experienced commander. However, he ambitious and courageous in times of battle. 1758 Amherst lands port in Louisburg and plans Siegge. o This gives the British army access to St. Lawrence River. o The plans for invading the French boosts the British morale. The Iroquois begin to recognize the power of the British and switch from neutrality to British support. o This gives the British access to Ohio Country, as well as supplies/a supply line. Hudson River Valley Area 1759 The British take over Quebec City. Louis Joseph Montcalm: French Commander at Quebec o The French begin to prioritize their supplies in Europe instead of in America. o Louis plans to wait out for the elements (winter) to prevent the British to use their supply line with the St. Lawrence River. o He begins to fortify Quebec and plays the Defensive with the soldiers he has. Montcalm stays within his fort limits, refusing to come out from Quebec. This forces James Rolfe to terrorize the countryside to lure Montcalm out. The Siege/Battle of Quebec, 1759 A risky tactic consisting of a naval army transporting soldiers to a bluff behind for a preemptive attack on the French. The number of French and British soldiers are about the same. (~ 3,000 – 3,500.) The difference is that the British have militia, whereas the French have trained, professional soldiers. The plan works, the British overcome and Montcalm gets shot. Wolfe and Amherst Overrun Montreal, 1760 1763: Pontiac’s Rebellion This was the Native American’s attempt to try and get the French to return after they leave the Americas. Proclamation of 1763 This out-laws settlement past the line of territory already declared to prevent conflict between the Colonists and the Natives. The Colonists dislike the royal intervention. o “Salutary Neglect”: the idea that the Colonists would be appeased and loyal to the Empire as long as they were left alone.
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