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Psych 330 Lecture 1 and 2 Notes, Ch. 1 Book notes

by: Melissa

Psych 330 Lecture 1 and 2 Notes, Ch. 1 Book notes PSY 330

Marketplace > University of Oregon > Psychlogy > PSY 330 > Psych 330 Lecture 1 and 2 Notes Ch 1 Book notes
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These include the first two lectures as well as notes from ch. 1 in the book, "Thought and Knowledge." Note that some of the notes for the book notes are identical to what he says in the book, I ju...
Psy 330 thinking
Ted Bell
Class Notes




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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melissa on Friday January 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 330 at University of Oregon taught by Ted Bell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Psy 330 thinking in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.


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Date Created: 01/08/16
1. The need for critical thinking skills A. The twin pillars of knowing and thinking a. Many people believe they already know how to think b. Need to teach people better communication skills c. Employees look for 5 things when it comes to critical thinking 1. Applying knowledge in real world settings 2. Analyzing and solving problems 3. Connecting choices to actions 4. Being able to innovate and be creative B. Thought and Knowledge a. Knowledge is only successful when applied in the right places and thought is successful when the use of Knowledge is applied correctly b. Need to use previous knowledge to create new Knowledge c. Information becomes Knowledge when we create our own interpretation but we also build on previous knowledge which in turn creates a new form of knowledge d. Knowledge is created in learning a new concept e. Knowledge structures: technical term used by cognitive psychologists to describe all of the interrelated concepts that each of us has about different subjects f. A state of understanding g. It is an active mental process C. Working definition of critical thinking a. Describes reasoning in an open ended manner and with an unlimited number of solutions 1. Requires construction of a situation and supporting the reasoning that went into a conclusion b. Use of cognitive skills or strategies that increase the probability of a desirable outcome c. Uses evidence and reasons and strives to overcome individual biases D. E. What's Critical about critical thinking? a. Requires us to evaluate our thought processes or how good a decision is or how well a problem has been solved b. Requires us to evaluate our thinking process and the reasoning for our conclusions c. Not parts of critical thinking: daydreams, night dreams, and thinking that are not engaging for a purpose and routine habits, and recalling information 1. Examples of non-directed or automatic thinking F. Cognitive Process instruction: interest in human thinking where its goal is to utilize knowledge we have accumulated about human thinking processes and the mechanisms in ways that can help people improve how they think a. Has allowed psychologists to discover when an approach will be wrong due to the nature of the problem or because of common biases of the past 1. Predictably irrational behavior G. Changing how people think~should it be done ? a. Allows for recognition of propaganda b. Analyze unstated assumptions c. Realize when people are trying to deceive them d. Consider credibility of info source e. Figure out best option for a problem 2. Empirical evidence that thinking can be improved A. Explicit methods-important for critical thinking a. Labeling the skills b. Teaching ways to analyze arguments c. Recognize when correlations are being used to make casual claims d. Confirmation bias and stereotypes e. How to make sound decisions B. Is Critical thinking a byproduct of a good education? a. NO b. Needs to focus on improvement of thinking and to do this there needs to be multiple examples C. Transfer of Training a. using thinking in numerous situations including and especially outside of the classroom b. Need to be tested during the learning process 3. Learning to Think Critically: A four part model A. Explicitly learn the skills of critical thinking a. Two assumptions for instruction 1. obvious and definable thinking skills that students can be taught to recognize and apply appropriately 2. Recognize them and you will have a more effective thinking process B. Develop the disposition for effort full thinking and learning a. Requires persistence and lots of effort b. Attitude is one of the most important things 1. Willingness to Plan A. Self regulation a. using feedback, monitoring comprehension, assessing progress towards a goal, and making judgements about how well something is learned B. Flexibility a. Cognitive Flexibility: ability to change how we think about something or to see things from another perspective, consider multiple options, think of several ways to respond, and seek information that may not be readily available b. Open to other people's opinions C. Persistence D. Willingness to Self-Correct, Admit Errors, and Change your mind when the evidence changes a. learn from your mistakes b. The problem is self-justification: not admitting to mistakes and making excuses for a belief or a behavior E. Being Mindful a. the simple act of drawing novel distinctions F. Consensus Seeking a. Compromise C. Direct learning activities in ways that increase the probability of structure training a. How can you learn to apply your Knowledge about contrast effects in different situations? D. Make meta cognitive monitoring explicitly and overt a. refers to our Knowledge of what we know and the use of it to direct further learning activities b. Executive function that guide how adults use different strategies and make decisions about the allocation of limited cognitive resources c. Need to look at both positive and negative evidence d. We tend to follow our beliefs more than what other people believe 4. Intelligence and Thinking Skills A. Nature of Intelligence a. the stuff of which thought is made b. Contains the deeper capability for comprehending our surroundings c. Intelligent thinking is similar to critical thinking d. Ability to learn from experience is what someone's intelligence should be measured by 5. Becoming a Better Thinker A. Two Types of thinking- Fast and Slow a. System 1: intuition 1. automatic and effortless; an expertise 2. Useful if A. area of expertise is one that is governed by regularities B. Expert had repeated experience with immediate feedback in that area 3. Key is recognition or Knowledge of results 4. Intuition sometimes acts like visual illusions in which we feel we can understand the world but because they are visions, they may not be 100% correct and can become distorted A. Two tables of the same size but positioned in different ways to appear as if one is actually larger B. To trust illusions a. How much experience does the expert have that is directly relevant to the task b. Is it a task where there are regular outcomes that can be learned from experience c. Is the expert in a field where there is immediate feedback about quality of decisions b. System 2 1. slow, effortful land deliberate 2. Critical thinking 3. Self control and cognitive effort 4. Bounded rationality A. Limits on ability to think rationally a. Cannot possibly know every consequence for a situation b. People are saticifiers in which they make the best decision they can for that situation c. Fast and frugal thinking A. Can actually be good for us but only when we are in situations where time may be limited B. Really only effective with experience in the area or in other words has put the time in before so that when faced with a limited situation they can make a quick decision d. Emotions color our thinking e. Unconscious influences on how we think 1. Automatic 2. Can be our environment 6. Thinking about thinking A. Biological process a. Our experiences shape how well our neurons transport thoughts to our brain and body B. Thinking as imagery and silent speech a. We use imagery to think 1. When asked certain questions we can picture what is actually being asked A. How many rooms are in your house? a. Causes you to picture your house and what rooms are there 2. "Thinking is when the picture is in your head but the sound is turned off" b. Words stimulate thought 7. Critical thinking: Hollywood style A. Media portrays good thinkers either as evil or nerdy


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