Nurs week 1
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Date Created: 01/08/16
NURS 201 Growth and Development through the Lifespan Midterm 1 Life in 2016 “It takes a village to raise a child…” But most of us don’t live in villages! Most people live in urban and suburban areas People may raise their children far from where they grew up – how can grandparents help? Lots of diversity- yay! Who else can be part of our villages? “Families” evolving & changing • Single parents • Grandparents • Gay parents • ‘Parallel’ families • Extended families • Blended families • Foster families Complicated families… What kinds of stress do we grow up with these days? • Poverty • Distribution of Wealth • Reality. • How can we deal with all this stress? Millennials: The Me Me Me Generation. Why millennials will save us all. • Pew Research on Millennials • Confident. • Connected. • Open to Change. NPR on Millennials http://www.npr.org/series/352990765/new -boom http://www.npr.org/2014/11/18/354196302/amid -the-stereotypes-some-facts-about-millennials • Most common age right now in the U.S. is 22 • Most educated generation (34% BA) — but even so, a majority remains undereducated • Marrying later, if at all (27 women, 29 men) • Most racially diverse generation in U .S. history — • 43% non-white – more than any current or previous generation. • Hispanic and Asian immigrants and their children have contributed to that spike in diversity. • The U.S. will become a majority -minority nation by 2043 according to the Census Burea u • Majority are optimistic about the future Chapter One: Introduction to Human Development Human Development • Scientific study of age-related changes in: o Behavior o Thinking o Emotion o Personality Original Sin • Augustine of Hippo – o 4 century philosopher o Humans are born selfish and o must seek spiritual rebirth and religious train. g • Developmental Outcomes: o Individuals struggle to overcome immoral actions Blank Slate o John Locke - th o 17 century philosopher o Empiricism o Children as passive recipients of environmental experiences o Developmental Outcomes: o Individual differences are due to experience o Adults can mold children into anything they want them to be Innate Goodness o Jean-Jacques Rousseau th o 18 century o Emphasis on children o basic goodness of human nature o Nurturance and protection needed o Developmental Outcomes: o Children’s environment interferes or encourages their development Let’s talk Parenting… o How might a parent who believes in the original sin view respond to and interact with a child differently than one who agrees with Rousseau about innate goodness? o How might the approaches of each of these parents differ from a parent who believes in Locke’s blank slate idea? Early Theories Darwin: 19 centu y o First organized study of human development o Evolution as the interplay of genetics and environmental adaptation o He thought studying child development might help scientists understand human evolution o Baby biographies § Detailed records of his own children’s early years G. Stanley Hall o First scientific study of child development: o Psychologist- used questionnaires and interviews to study large numbers of children o Emphasis on norms or average ages at which developmental milestones occur o Ways to track development of individual kids Arnold Gesell o Systematic description of children across domains, particularly in the first five years of life o Maturation occurs “naturally” from genetically programmed sequence. o Used movie cameras, one-way mirrors o His work became the basis for norm-referenced tests used today to track normal development Lifespan Development o So why not just Child Development? o Why “Lifespan”? o Aren’t we done developing by now? Lifespan Perspective Paul Baltes: 20 century o Important changes occur in each period of development o Adults experience major life passages o Themes: o Plasticity - ability to change o Interdisciplinary perspective- anthropology, psychology, etc o Multiple contexts – families, culture, neighborhoods Domains of development, Periods of Development, Periods of Development o How do we define these periods? o How do different cultures define these? o What about in other times in history – when life expectancy was 49 years for example? Key Issues: o Nature o Inborn propensities; biological influences o Innate biases or tendencies o Nurture o Learning from environmental experiences o Internal models of experienc Three Kinds of Change o Normative age-graded universal changes o Social clock or age norms o Normative history-graded changes o Cohort or generational effects o Non-normative changes o Unique, unshared changes or o Individual differences Contexts of Development o Social Clock o On-time events o Off-time events o Atypical development o delays, mental illness, extreme behavioral problems “Double Whammy”- vulnerable child in poor environment Critical Period o Differences result from the timing of developmental events. o Organism is sensitive to presence (or absence) of experiences. o Animal research o Baby ducks: first 15 hours after hatching is critical period for developing their (following response) Sensitive Period o Sensitive period in infancy to attach to another human (i.e. parent) –if this doesn’t happen then it might never completely happen o Example: kids in foster care – if loved as babies they can transfer attachment to a new parent. If neglected and never attach then there are dire long-term outcomes. Vulnerability and Resilience o Vulnerabilities and protective factors interact with a child’s environment. o Environments cause differential effects o The same environment can affect different children differently. o Effect depends on the qualities a child brings to interactions. o Resilient children gain support from optimal environments. Gender matters. o Influences individual development o Interaction between characteristics and environment influences and is influenced by gender. o Which do you think are more important in understanding development - nature issues or nurture issues? Why? o What part of the life span interests you the most? What issues would you like to learn about the most? Research Methods and Designs – Theories o Sets of statements that propose general principles of development Predictions or hypotheses o Educated guesses that are testable by data collect on The Goals of Developmental Science o Describe development o Explain development o Predict developmental event o Influence some developmental outcome Descriptive Methods o Variables: characteristics that vary across people o Relationship: when two or more variables vary together Can you think of two variables we could study to learn about our class? Naturalistic Observations o People observed in their normal environments o Potential observer biases o Limited generalizability o Time consuming Case Studies o In-depth examination of a single person o Often the basis of important hypotheses about unusual developmental events (such as strokes and head injuries) Laboratory Observation o Controlled setting for study o Researcher has some control over the environment Surveys, Interviews and Questionnaires o Two broad survey areas: o Questionnaires o Interviews o Methods o Questions asked; answers recorded o Samples used (a representative subset § of the population being studied) Correlations o Describe the strength of the relationship between two variables o Positive correlation o High scores on one variable usually accompany high scores on the other. o Negative correlation o Scores on two variables move in opposite directions. o Correlations range from -1.00 to +1.00 o Zero means the variables are not related Correlation is NOT causality. o Correlations measure the level or degree of co-variation between two variables. They do not prove causal relationships. Experimental Designs Test causal hypotheses. Randomly assign participants to different treatment and control groups. Experimental (treatment) group Control group (no treatment) Variables o Independent variable or “cause” o Dependent variable or “effect” o The dependent variable depends on the “cause.” o Quasi-experiments o Participants not randomly assigned Designs to Study Age-Related Changes – Cross-Sectional Designs o People studied from different age groups at same time point o Can indicate possible age differences or age changes o But age-related differences may become confused with cohort or generational effects. o Birth Cohort or Generational Effects o Different generations have unique experiences. o Cohort and generational effects can become entangled. Longitudinal Designs o Same individuals studied over a period of time o Individual consistencies and inconsistencies can be observed. o Net change assessed over time in the same people. o Longitudinal Designs: Some Problems o Practice or testing affect o Study attrition Sequential Designs o Combined groups from at least two cohorts followed in a longitudinal study o Comparison of cohorts while incorporating some degree of individual differences o Both aging AND cohort effects are possible. o Ponder: o How do your culture’s behavioral expectations for 20-year-olds, 40- year-olds, and 60-year-olds differ? Ethnographies o In-depth descriptions of single culture or context o May compare two or more cultures or subcultures o Can provide both descriptive and interpretive informati n Benefits o Cross-cultural Studies o Search for universal and unique developmental changes o Demonstrate degree of environmental variation within human development o Research Ethics o Broad o ethical principles for responsible conduct of research and use of any outcomes resulting from research o In Research: o Protection of animal rights and human subjects o Universities, government, and organizations often have Institutional Review Boards (IRBs). Research Ethics o Protection from harm o Informed consent o Confidentiality o Knowledge of result o Deception Chapter 2: Theories of Human Development Objectives o Discuss the main ideas of three “families” of theories • Psychoanalytic theories • Learning theories • Cognitive theories o Discuss the main ideas of other theories • Biological theories • Ecological theories Psychoanalytic theories o Psychoanalytic theorists believe that developmental change happens because of the influence of internal drives and emotions on behavior o Freud’s § psychoanalytic theory o Erikson’s § psychosocial theory Psychosexual Theory: Sigmund Freud o Developmental change happens because of the influence of internal drives and emotions on behavior o Governed by conscious and unconscious motives o Things that happen to people during childhood can contribute to the way they later function as adults. o Childhood trauma almost always lead to mental issues later in life o Based on his clinical work with patients suffering from mental illness. o A method of investigating and treating personality disorders. o Freud’s three parts of personality o Conscious: everything that we are aware of, we can think and talk about rationally. § Superego and ego o Unconscious: reservoir of feelings, thoughts, urges, and memories that outside of our conscious awareness, most are unpleasant, influence our behavior. § Super ego, ego, id o Three elements of personality work together to create complex human behaviors. o Id (present at birth): § unconscious, § contains libido (a person’s basic sexual and aggressive impulses), § strives for immediate gratification of all desires, • wants, and needs, § if not satisfied immediately anxiety. pleasure principle. o Ego (develops at 2-4/5 yo): § satisfy id’s desire w/o violating the superego’s rule (i.e., realistic and socially appropriate way). § reality principle. o Superego (begins to develop at 6yo): § contains the rules of society, § provides guidelines for making judgments. § Conscience is the inner voice as a guide to the rightness/wrongness of one’s behavior, § Perfection principle. o An iceberg metaphor. o Ego Anxiety and Defense Mechanisms o Created by the ego to protect against anxiety when any of the three components (id, ego, superego) is in conflict with another. o Automatic, normal, unconscious strategies we use for reducing anxiety. o Mechanism § Denial: behavior as if the problem doesn’t exist § Regression: behavior in a way this is inappropriate for ones age § Rationalization: creating an explanation to justify an action or deal with a disappointment o Freud's Psychosexual Stages o Child moves in a fixed sequence determined to personality development. o At each stages libido sets in different part of body. § Libido: psychosexual energy - the driving force behind behavior. o Successful completion of psychosexual stages > healthy personality. § If certain issues are not resolved at the appropriate stage fixation (persistent focus on an earlier psychosexual stage) o Stages § Oral (birth -1) • Mouth, lips, and tongue • weaning § Anal (1-3) • Anus • Toilet training § Phalic (3-6) • Genitals • Oedipus/Electra complex § Latency (6-12) • None • Defense mechanism, identity of same sex peers § Genital(12<) • Genital • Mature sexual intimacy Erickson’s Psychosocial Theory • Neo-Freudian: Built on the strengths of Freud’s theory o but tried to avoid its weaknesses (i.e., the view that childhood trauma nearly always leads to emotional instability in adulthood) • Development resulted from the interaction between inner instincts and outer cultural and social demands. • 8 stages across the entire lifespan. o Each psychosocial stage requires solution of a crisis. § The first four stages form the foundation for the adult personality. § Adult stages are not strongly tied to age. o Trust vs mistrust: (0-1) § Secure attachment to caregiver o Autonomy vs shame/doubt: (1-3) § Child learns self care o Initiative vs guilt (3-6) § Organize activities and add goals § Some aggressiveness and assertiveness o Industry vs inferiority (6-12) § Competence • Social norms, cultural skills, tool use o Identity vs role confusion (12-18) § Adaption of sense of self to puberty changes § Thinks of future choices § Mautre sexual identity o Intimacy vs isolation (18-30) § Love develops o Generativist vs stagnation (30-60) § Care is one of the strongest emotions § Turn outward o Ego integrity vs despair (60<) § Wisdom • Life review • Come to terms with self • Healthy development requires a favorable ratio of positive to negative experiences. o Successful completion stage: a sense of mastery o Unsuccessful completion stage: a sense of inadequacy Learning Theories o Learning theories focus on how experiences in the environment shape the child. o Classical Conditioning: John B. Watson, Ivan Pavlov o Operant Conditioning: B.F. Skinner o Social-Cognitive Theory: Albert Bandura Classical Conditioning: John B. Watson, Ivan Pavlov • Def: A learning process that occurs through associations between an environmental stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus. o Reflex: Stimulus – Response connection o Learned: conditioned stimulus elicits conditioned responses o Unlearned: loud noise (unconditioned stimulus) automatically elicits fear (unconditioned respons ) § Conditioning: rat + loud noise elicits fear o Learned: rat (conditioned stimulus) elicit fear (conditioned response) Operant Conditioning: B.F. Skinner • Modification of voluntary behavior • It involves learning to repeat or stop behaviors because of the consequences they bring about. • Reinforcement: anything that follows a behavior and causes it to be repeated. o Positive reinforcement: § adding a pleasant consequence to increase the action (ex, praises) o Negative reinforcement: § learn to perform a specific behavior to stop something unpleasant (ex, cough syrup) • Punishment: o anything follows a behavior and causes it to stop. Removing nice things (no TV), Adding something unpleasant (scolding). • Extinction: o gradual elimination of a behavior through repeated non- reinforcement, ignoring. • Partial reinforcement: o reinforcement of a behavior on some occasion but not others, very resistant to extinction. • Defined by its effect. o Consequences that do not stop behavior can’t be properly called punishment. Classical vs Operant Conditioning • Classical Conditioning o Pavlov, Watson o Involves placing a neutral signal before a reflex o Focuses on involuntary, automatic behaviors • Operant Conditioning o Skinner o Involves applying reinforcement or punishment after a behavior o Focuses on strengthening or weakening voluntary behaviors Hints for Parents and Caregivers? Social-Cognitive Theory: Albert Bandura • Observational learning = people learn from models. o Seeing a model reinforced or punished for behavior. o Learning does not necessarily lead to a change in behavior. o What they learn from a model depends on how they interpret the situation cognitively and emotionally. • Learning from modeling is not an entirely automatic process. Not all observed behaviors are effectively learned. o Attention, Memory, Physical capabilities, Motivation Self-Efficacy • Perceived self-efficacy: People's beliefs about their ability to succeed in a particular situation. • Strong sense of self-efficacy: take challenge, ↑interests, ↑commitment, resilient • Weak sense of self-efficacy: avoid challenge, view task beyond their ability, focus on personal fallings & negative outcomes, quickly loose confidence in personal abilities • Sources of Self-Efficacy o Mastery experiences, social modeling, social persuasion, psychological responses to situation Cognitive Theories o Cognitive theories emphasize mental aspects of development, such as logic and memory. o Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory o Vygotsky’s socio-cultural theory o Information processing theory Piaget’s cognitive-developmental theory • All children seem to go through the same kinds of sequential discoveries about their world at about the same age. • Cognitive development is a progressive reorganization of mental processes as a result of biological maturation and environmental experience. • Cognitive development is at the center of human organism and language is contingent on cognitive development. o Children construct an understanding of the world around them, o then experience discrepancies between what they already know and what they discover in their environment. • Scheme: internal cognitive structure that provides an individual with a procedure to use in a specific circumstances. o Ex: Cow – big, 4 legs, tail • Assimilation: process of using schemes to make sense of experiences. o Ex: big, 4 legs, tail--cow • Accommodation: changing a scheme to incorporate new information. Key to developmental change. o Ex: big, 4 legs, tail -horse • Equilibration: process of balancing assimilation and accommodation to fit the environment. • Developmental stages o Sensorimotor (birth -18months) § Infancy use their sensory and motor schemes to act on the world around them o Preoperational (18months-6years) § Youngsters acquire symbolic schemes • Language, fantasy § Use thinking and communication o Concrete operational (6-12 years) § Children begin to think logically and become capable of solving problems logically o Formal operational (12<) § Adolescents learn to thin logically about abstract ideas and hypothetical topics Vygotsky’s: Sociocultural Theory o Def: Complex forms of thinking have their origins in social interactions, not private explorations. o Children’s learning of new cognitive skills is guided by an adult or a more skilled child who structures the child’s learning experience o To create an appropriate scaffold, an adult must gain and keep the child’s attention, model the best energy, and adapt the whole process to the child’s developmental level, or zone of proximal development. o Zone of Proximal Development: § the distance between the actual development level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers. Teacher provides the scaffolding for children’s discovery through questions, demonstrations, and explanations Information-Processing Theory: o memory system is made up of multiple components and that information moves through the components in an organized way o sensory info. > sensory memory (screening of stimuli) > short term memory > long term memory Alan Baddeley & Graham Hitch o Information-processing theorists use the computer as a model of human thinking, with memory processes central to their study. Three-stage theory of memory o Memory research assumes that the memory system is made up of multiple components and that information moves through the components in an organized way. BIOLOGICAL AND ECOLOGICAL THEORIES o Current trends in developmental psychology: links between physiological processes and development, environmental factors interact with physiological processes. o Galton’s Behavioral Genetics o Ethology and Sociobiology o Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Theory Biological Theories: Galton’s Behavioral Genetics o Behavioral genetics: examines the genetic underpinnings of behavioral phenotypes o Focuses on the effect of heredity on individual differences o Related people such as children and parents have similar traits influenced by genes o Child’s pattern of inherited quality can influence how she behaves with others IQ of fraternal and identical twins o Look at these findings from several studies of Dutch twins who shared the same environment. What does this tell you about the influence of heredity and age? Ethology o Ethology: examines genetically determined mechanisms that promote survival through natural selection, study animals in their natural environment. o Imprinting: young ducklings and geese imprint on any moving objects to which they are o Exposed during the critical period for imprinting (24-48 hrs after hatching) o Emotional relationships are necessary for human infants' survival. o Baby is genetically programmed to cry in a certain way, and adults are genetically programmed to get irritated when they hear it. The caretaker responds to a crying baby’s need’s in order to remove the irritating stimulus of the noise. As the caretaker and infant interact, an emotional bond is created between them. Thus, genes for crying in an irritating manner increase infant’s chances of survival. Sociobiology o Sociobiology emphasizes genes that aid group survival and argues that humans have the best chance for individual survival when they live in groups. o Evolution has provided human with genetic programming that helps us cooperate. Bronfenbrenner’s Bioecological Theory o Explains development in terms of relationships between individuals and their environments o interactions with others and environment o more than one type of environment Contexts o Biological context, Microsystem, Mesosystem, Exosystem, Macrosystem o biological context (innermost circle): child’s genetic make-up and developmental stage. Eclecticism: Multiple Theoretical Approaches o Today’s developmental scientists emphasize eclecticism, which is the use of multiple theoretical perspectives to explain and study human development. o Interdisciplinary; builds on ideas from multiple sources o Avoids rigid adherence to single theory o Contributes to development of more comprehensive theories
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