Film History: Week of January 18th
Film History: Week of January 18th Film 2700
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Naomi King on Friday January 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Film 2700 at Georgia State University taught by Charlie Michael in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 92 views. For similar materials see History Of Motion Picture in Film at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 01/08/16
Week of 01/18/16 The First Motion Picture Lecture 2 Terminology Rough consensus of the reference of the 1 twenty years of cinema Pre- Cinema: Up to 1895 Early Cinema: 1895-1907 Transitional Cinema: 1907-1915(ish) Early Feature Filmmaking: 1915(ish)- late teens Pre- Cinema Inventions - 1890, by this time about 5 elements came together to set the conditions for cinema to occur - It would be wrong to say that there is one inventor of cinema - Lots of individuals were actually working on different things that came together to eventually create early cinema. Five Major Inventions 1. Optical toys & Devices Ex. The Zoetrope 2. Rapid Projection of Images Ex. Magic Lantern (in existence since the 17 century) 3. Successive pictures on a clear surface Clear surfaces such as: -glass plate -metal plate Heliotype (1826) by Nicéphonre Niéce Week of 01/18/16 First permanent photographic image. Need a lot of exposure time (8-20hrs) Heavy Example -paper Calotype (1839) by Henry Fox Talbot Permanent image on paper Easy to reproduce Lightweight However reduces quality of image Example 4. Flexible Base Rapid passage through camera Kodak (George Eastman) did this for still photograph Which brought about domestic cameras 5. Intermittent mechanism material could move through without tearing borrowed concept from the already existent sewing machine Major Precursors Edweard Muybridge Responsible for the running horse project to find out if all of the horse’s feet are off the ground at once. Week of 01/18/16 Accomplished by trip wire and 24 still cameras. Etienne Jules Marey Invents photographic gun -which helps him be the first to create an image with multiple images inside one image Emile Reynaud Praxinoscope - uses stripes of images placed on the inside of a cylinder, which were reflected in a prism of mirrors. Thomas Edison Kinetoscope Week of 01/18/16 -one person motion picture viewer -consisted of a pulley system for film strips -mostly in barber shops and “masculine” places Black Maria = First black box production studio WKL Dickson worked for Edison responsible for lots inventions credited to Edison Mutoscope -variation of Edison’s Kinetoscope -becomes Kinetoscope’s competitor -Uses flip cards instead of film strips Motion Picture Company: American Mutoscope and Biograph Co. The Lumiére Brothers ( Auguste & Louis ) Credited with creation of cinema Invention: Cinomatograph Week of 01/18/16 -make & create film -lightweight -hand crank th December 28 . 1895 Cinema begins: first public screening with a paying audience Where: The Grand Café in Paris What: 10 films -1 film shown: “Workers Leaving the Factory” George Méliès was present Known for actualités = slice of life - “Showing the world to the world” Early Cinema Early films are less than a minute -1905, they average about 5-10 mins Topics of films based off news and actual life Presentation draws from theater & photography Common features: frontality, spectacle, performance, actuality Week of 01/18/16 How to Tell a Story: Early Cinema Méliès, Porter, & Griffth Lecture 3 George Méliès Magician Because of his profession, many of his movies contained special effects He is considered to be the “Grandfather of Special Effects” Attended the first cinema Leading movie producer (1895-1912) 520 films produced Production Company: Star Film Production Co. “A Trip to the Moon” (1902) Most popular film Popular scene: Rocket crashes into the moon’s eye Mise-en-scene Make comparisons between Méliès’ high productions, special effects films to The Lumiére’s actualités. Melies fast rise to fame came with a fast fall 1908, business begins to wane 1911, only films being made were Westerns by his brother 1913, bankruptcy- company is acquired by Pathé “Cinema of Attraction” (Tom Gunning) Gunning: Cinema was not about telling a story (pre-1907) Méliès/ Lumiéres is a false opposition Individuals believed that the productions Méliès and Lumiére were different One telling a story, and the other just a snippet of actual life However, both are showing something. A thrill. Mundane things were seen as exciting -consider the times Examples of “attractions” The Big Swallow (1901) Electrocuting an Elephant (1903) Miss Dundee and her Performing Dogs (1903) The Gay Shoe Clerk (1904) Week of 01/18/16 Pathé Frères Founded by four brothers in 1896 Started as a film equipment company 1900, Ferdinand Zecca was fired to direct films First studio heads Mastermind behind many early genres, like chase films -The Policeman’s Little Run (1907) 1902, acquires Lumiéres patents Quickly became the dominant producers Silent films caused no language or translation barriers America could not compete Edison had the market bogged down with patent wars -French studio picked up the slack - France capitalizes on world market for early cinema Edwin S. Porter Most popular director at Edison’s Biograph Important figure of cinema Over 250 films directed Most famous titles The Life of an American Fireman (1903) The Great Train Robbery (1903) MPPC = Motion Picture Patents Company (1908) To stop the patent wars in America, MPPC was started Big American production companies Agreed to share their technologies Downsides have to be a part of the MPPC to use patents small production companies were excluded Nickelodeon Theaters (1905) first place just for showing films (exhibitions) costs a nickel Push to Attract Middle Class Improvement of nickelodeon theaters Standard lighting Better sitting Better ventilation Self-censorship: make films that are morally upright Week of 01/18/16 Rise of the Star System Actors were not being credited during early years As cinema progressed the public began to request actors specifically
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