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Epidemics and AIDS Week 1

by: Ashley Lima

Epidemics and AIDS Week 1 AUCT 140-001

Marketplace > University of Hartford > AUCT 140-001 > Epidemics and AIDS Week 1
Ashley Lima
University of Hartford
GPA 3.73
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Notes I took in class January 20th, 2016 Discusses disease, cells and mutation.
Epidemic and AIDS
Amala Guha
Class Notes
Epidemics and AIDS, Science, Biology, Chemistry, Cells.




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Lima on Friday January 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to AUCT 140-001 at University of Hartford taught by Amala Guha in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views.


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Date Created: 01/08/16
January 20th, 2016 Epidemics andAids There is no life without science. We all know science in our own ways. Scientific researches are always looking for answers. They take a hypothesis, and they have to prove or disprove their hypotheses. Homeostasis - perfect balance inside your body within the context of your environment. Disease - When your homeostasis is disturbed. Disease is caused by agents, such as microbes, bacteria, fungus, virus, anything that we don’t see with the naked eye are microbes. New diseases are happening all the time because of evolution, mutation, travel. Global situation - everything is globally moving, traveling, meeting new people. We’re getting new microbes from places and we are unaware of it. Pets an animals, we hug them, we kiss them, we sleep with them, however we have no idea what kind of things they are carrying. We are the only society where we do things and blame other people, we don’t take responsibility for our actions, and that is a very dangerous thing. We are unaware of what we are spreading from day to day. Infectious Disease (ID) -Aspecialized part of medicine. Organism is always present in an infected/diseased person. This organism can be isolated and reproduced in the laboratory. When this is reproduced in the lab, it can also go back to a healthy person, when inoculated into that healthy person it will cause the same disease. Dr. Koch - formed the definition. Can go from one person to another and infect. Our scientific advancements are little steps in time, there is no big leaps in science. Just small steps that lead to bigger steps, constantly learning and changing. Epidemiology - Study ID’s and their origins and how they jump from one place to another. Ex. Patient, stomach ache and diarrhea.Asks questions about where they have been, and when they started feeling sick. This patient went to Chipotle. If 3 patients experience the same sickness from the same place, someone must be informed and they must investigate said Chipotle. Epidemics - one place, many people. Epidemiology studies new diseases, usually also goes into forming and understanding population risk factors. In this case, this risk factor is eating at the infected Chipotle. If someone has an ID they become and risk factor and must be quarantined. Epidemiology only relates to the larger population, you won’t study one single person to see the methodology or the mechanics of how the disease is working, this is a negative part of science. Also, exclude and include certain, specific populations which can kind of misdirect for the entirety of understanding what is exactly happening. Medicine without science is not very firm to answer deep questions, and that is why we have this kind of behavior knowing one day one thing is good, then the next one thing is bad. Science can be distorted by miscommunication from epidemiologist studies. When the disease travels from one country/continent to another, it becomes a pandemic. Endemic is when the disease is always present in the population. Sometimes it may not be symptomatic but it is always present within. Ex. chicken pox, once you get it, it’s always inside your body but it may not always show. Typhoid Mary - She used to cook, she was a personal chef. She’d go from one family to another and there was all of the sudden a flare of Typhoid. So these Epidemiologists stepped in to see the reasoning behind the Typhoid. The single factor common for everyone who was ill was Mary. She was carrying the bacteria and gave it to everyone she cooked for. Structure of Cells - Without understanding the basics of cells and how they become infected you cannot relate it toAIDS and Epidemics. What is a cell? Everything that we measure has a unit; the cell is a unit of life. Single cell or multicellular. What is life? The ability to reproduce, breathe, communicate, sleep, eat/drink, excrete (pee, poop, sweat), move. Acell is a basic structure and there are two types: Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic.
 Today we’re discussion Eukaryotic cells. The outside of Eukaryotic cells is a cell membrane which defends of protects the materials inside the cell cell, makes sure to contain everything, and it selects what goes in and what goes out the cell. Nucleus - Where the genes are confined. DNA- Controls the cell, it stores the genetic material. Mitochondria - The powerhouse of the cell, where the energy is developed. The building blocks of energy.
 Cell membrane - Carries certain things called receptors and gates. Receptors are very specific for certain proteins, only allows certain proteins to diffuse into the cell. Gates open and shut to things that cannot diffuse. Osmosis from high concentration to low concentration from low to high, very small particles can go through cell membrane through osmosis. From the nucleus arrises E.R. Endoplasmic Reticulum and golgi bodies. The purpose of all of this is chop and modify proteins made by DNAand RNA. DNAis very important because this is what replicates the cells. Cells are dividing all the time. We are shedding cells which we do not see. Cells comes together to make tissues, tissues come together to make organs, organs come together to make systems. Tissues and cells have very specific needs. Your heart tissues need calcium and other things, therefore those tissues are able to take what they need and what’s provided to them before other cells. Each tissue/each cell cherry picks the material they need to survive, grow and maintain their health. Nutrition is very important and through nutrition, basic proteins can be picked up by specific spells so they’re able to successfully grow and divide. If you don’t have certain mental foods the cells will starve and your body will react to the consequences. Internally we are always shedding cells, cells are always dying, but that’s okay because they are replicating inside of us which is all thanks to the DNA. 
 Cytosol - liquid material the cell organs are sitting inside. DNA- DeoxyribonucleicAcid - Contains pentos sugar, a phosphate group and a nitrogen base. It’s double helical, the nitrogen bases are inside the helix. These nitrogen bases areAdenine (A), Thymine (T), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C). They will always pair up with each other.A- T and G - C. So when they are replicating, the strands will separate and pair up with the nitrogen base they’re compatible with. This is the language of genetics. This is very important to memorize. This is being made in the nucleus all the time, one DNAis always making another DNAthrough a process called replication. When the DNAis made they can also have mutations. The sequence of production will be different if one nitrogen pair is miss-made. DNAwill make RNAthrough transcription. When there is a point mutation, two things happen; either they will be corrected through the golgi and the final process of synthesizing the protein, or the DNAwill make false protein and if they make false protein the cell can make some kind of disease. Anything you consume can change your genes, alcohol, tobacco, drugs, all these things can change your genes. Stress, sun, infections, environment and other things call also cause changes to your genes. Processed foods contain hormones which can cause changes to your genetics. We are becoming aggressively abusive towards nature and nature is coming to haunt us. We are the worlds greatest consumers of goods, we call it lifestyle but this isn’t how it’s always been. We are slowly destroying the environment and causing all of these mutations ourselves. With these mutations we can have disease. In point mutation only one nitrogen base will be mutated. Frame shift mutation really calls for entirely different types of protein that will synthesize over needed synthesized proteins, it’s very dangerous. This can also happen from all of the factors discussed earlier. Frame shift mutation will also shift the making of the RNAproteins. RNA- Ribonucleic acid. Single stranded. In that strand we have a different nucleotide which isAdenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C), Uracil (U). Replication (DNA- DNA) Transcription (DNA- RNA) Homework: 1) Structure of the cell. 2) Describe it’s functions. 3) Define RNAand DNA 3)AATCGTAtakes these letters and replicate them and transcribe them.


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