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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristen Walsh on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 108 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Yates in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 74 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Chapter 5 The Working Cell Energy Energy can be changed from one form to another 0 It cannot be created or destroyed o This is the conservation of energy principle First law of thermo dynamics Entropy Heat 0 Is a type of kinetic energy 0 Is a product of all energy conversions o All forms of energy can be converted to heat Scientists use the term entropy as a measure of disorder or randomness o All energy conversions increase the energy of the universe Chemical Energy Form of potential energy Found in food gasoline and other fuels Living cells and automobile engines use the same basic process to make chemical energy do work Food Calories A calorie is the amount of energy that raises the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius Calories are very small units of energy 0 Not practical for measuring the energy in food A food calorie capitol C is actually a kilocalorie 0 1000 calories foods with the most CH bonds 0 store the most potential energy 0 have the most calories 0 make the most ATP Cellular Respiration the energyreleasing chemical breakdown of fuel molecules provides energy for the cell to do work a series of energy transferring chemical reactions the chemical bonds in food are broken down the energy in those bonds is shifted to the bonds in ATP 0 ATP is the energy currency in all cells About 40 of the energy in food is transferred to ATP 0 The remainder becomes heat Adenosine Triphosphate ATP is transformed into Adenosine Diphosphate ADP 0 Motor protein performing mechanical work 0 Transport protein performing transport work 0 Chemical reactants performing chemical work The ATP Cycle Cellular work spend on ATP ATP is recycled from ADP and phosphate through cellular respiration ATP functions in what is called energy coupling or the ATP cycle Enzymes Metabolism is the sum total of all chemical reactions that occur in organisms Few metabolic reactions occur without the assistance of enzymes Activation Energy Is the energy that activated the reactants in a chemical reaction Triggers a chemical reaction to proceed Enzymes 0 Lower the activation energy for chemical reactions 0 each enzyme is very selective I it catalyzes speci c reactions 0 each enzyme recognizes a speci c substrate I the active site ts to the substrate and the enzyme changes shape slightly I called induced t 0 enzymes can function over and over again I key characteristic Enzyme Inhibitors 0 can inhibit a metabolic reaction 0 some bind to the active site as substrate imposters o bind at a remote site changing the enzyme s shape Passive Transport Diffusion across membranes molecules contain heat energy 0 they vibrate and wander randomly diffusion is one result of the movement of molecules 0 molecules tend to spread into the available space 0 diffusion is passive transport no energy ATP is required Osmosis movement of water 0 Hypotonic the number of molecules is less than equilibrium lower concentration of solute o Hypertonic the number of molecules is more than equilibrium higher concentration of solute o lsotonic the number of molecules is equal to the amount of uidwater equal concentration of solute The survival of a cell depends on its ability to balance water uptake and loss 0 Animal cell I Normal equal I Lysing too much water about to burst I Shriveled not enough water 0 Plant Cell I Flaccid equal I Turgid hypotonic Active Transport Requires ATP Exocytosis secretes substances outside of the cell Endocytosis takes material into the cell Phagocytosis cellular eating Pinocytosis Cellular drinking ReceptorMediated Endo binding of external molecules to membrane proteins SignalTransduction Pathway consists of proteins that relay signals
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