Suffrage and Labor Unions
Suffrage and Labor Unions HIST 222
Popular in History of the United States, 1877 to Present
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Johnson Womack on Saturday January 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 222 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Dr. Julie Reed in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see History of the United States, 1877 to Present in History at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 01/09/16
Gilded Age The Electorate and Political Activity Political participation was at an all time high from 18761900 Republicans strongest support was from North and MidwestAfrican Americans in the South. The Republicans were seen as defenders of the Union. DemocratsSouth and from Catholics and immigrants in NE 80% of the population, 90% of them was voters. Few people who were in political parties were public officials. Intimidation was common. Republicans Republicans focused on Nationalism and National communion. Both parties had the same amount of support. Rarely did one party control one branch of government. Economic issues didn’t set the standard for party affiliation; it was upbringing, religion and lifestyle. Political machines Controlled City politics Partisan support led to rewards Created room for third parties at local/state level Prohibition: Those who supported the Prohibition Greenback: Antimonopoly ideology Populist: Associates All of the parties saw some local success, but never became as big as Democrat or Republican. Local party owners were given municipal jobs. Women’s Political Activity Women gained increased access and employment opportunities Advocates for suffrage through National American Women Suffrage Association Elizabeth Cady Stanton & Susan B. Anthony (1 President) Social Reform Some places in the west were getting more women to vote. Federal Bureaucracy Federal Bureaucracy relatively weak. Industrialization and a nationalizing economy encouraged changes. Bureaucracy was small. The Presidency was weak. Impeachment of President Johnson was difficult, and all of the presidents up there at the time, although capable on each party, were conservative. Congress was the foremost branch but was impeded by branches. The amount of business grew during the economy There were little more than 50,000 government employees, ¾ were postal service workers. The system of selecting federal employees was known as the spoils system. People were hired despite their qualifications. Spoils System Victorious candidates repaid partisanship with employment Impacted positions that necessitated certain skills Role of State/territorial governments Took lead in regulation industries Minnesota as example o Dairy Commission o State Veterinarians o Telegraph Regulation Reform of the Spoils System President Hayes presidency was there, but didn’t completely change it President Garfield o Assassination happened by a disgruntled office. Pendleton Civil Service Act (1883): This helped with job classification of certain jobs. These jobs were only 10% of the total. 90% of them were obtained from patronage. Later, it would be 50%. Beginnings of federal regulation Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railway Companpy V Illinois (1886) Interstate Commerce Act (1887): Prohibited rebates, discriminatory rates, pooling rates, and the ICC could investigate the commissions. Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC): 15 years in its running only one case was in favor of the ICC. Sherman AntiTrust Act (1890): The law was written with vague language, and prohibited limits on trade. The 1890’s served as a turning point for an active government. Some of the changes reflected the concerns for everyday people. Labor in industry was divided. Management was white, Protestant and male. Workers acted in partisan ways. An exception for those who voted for better ways was the Knights of labor. They lost a major strike against the railroads in the South. 1500 strikes were staged in 1886 by 340,000 workers. Employers fought back by having the police authorities arrest them for not working. Haymarket Affair (1886) 4 strikers were killed, 7 policemen were killed, but 100 were wounded. Afterwards, there were fewer than 100,000 members. Labor Organizing AFL: Much less ambitious and less inclusive than the Knights of Labor, deals between management and other workers. What are the benefits of this? Specify the needs for workers. What aren’t the advantages? Fewer numbers, less diversity in the skill set, Pinpointed as an individual, Give incentive for a corporation to replace you with a machine. Eaugene vs Docs. Progressive Era Language attached to this period can limit the complexity. By labeling it that it is an upward trajectory. For industrialists, it was a time of economic progress. Is progress really good for humanity? To criticize industrialization is to comment on human kind. Nativism Industrial Growth Just because someone has a reform, doesn’t mean that it is always positive. Progressives stood for broad beliefs of the era. Social reforms implemented to aid the poor. This was the boarding school era for Native Americans. Children were taken away from their homes and beaten for speaking their Native language in the school. Immigrants wanted higher access that others wanted. 60% of all male breadwinners made less than a living wage. A fire at the triangle shirtwaist company killed 460 workers. Management blocked the exits. The U.S. had the highest rate of industrial accidents. The Social Gospel These people led social reform for the betterment of workers’ wages. Walter Rauschenbush was a Baptist who wrote Christianity and the Social Crisis in 1907. Federal Council of Churches of Christ in America was formed in 1908. This provided an ethical way of government help in times of need. William Thomas Steed led movements towards Chicago and wrote a book If Christ Came to Chicago. Journalism Investigative reporting known as muckraking. Reporters were sent to see corruption for McClure’s Magazine. soon, everyone was following. Novels also followed including The Octopus by Frank Norris. By industrialists spending copious amounts of money on PR, Muckraking was all but silenced. Gospel of Efficiency Theodore Roosevelt admired the success of management techniques to help with economic growth. Scientific management was interchangeably used with sound business management. Some industrialists thought that governments would help with developing safety regulations. Labor Workers resisted efficiency efforts when working conditions remained substandard. They resisted the times of “efficiency”. State intervention were seen to improve working conditions. These unions organized in the factory and sweat shops. Industrial World Workers IWW (1905) Wobblies were considered as violent revolutionaries, but the industrialists used every legal way to be violent. Elizabeth Flynn Socialism Never gained a lot of attention in the U.S., but did believe in equal treatment and equal ownership in the railroads. Eugene V. Debs converted to socialism after prison. Women’s Sphere More women than ever worked outside the home. 1910, ¼ of all workers were women many of whom were married. Shrinking family sizes Women’s clubs were used to give the women something to do outside of the home. The Women’s Trade Union League (WUTL) 1903. Successfully supported the Garment workers strike with supplies. 1914 Feminist Alliances tried to help with having women who were teachers keep their jobs after marriage. The case of the Industrial Christian Home in Salt Lake City. Polygamy was the struggle of political and economic types. Miners joined them in the 1860’s & 70’s. This larger context made Protestant home.