BIO 1011; Week 1 notes
BIO 1011; Week 1 notes 1011
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Addison Guskey on Saturday January 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1011 at University of Denver taught by Robert Dores in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 109 views. For similar materials see Evolution, Heredity, and Biodiversity in Biology at University of Denver.
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Date Created: 01/09/16
EXAM 1: 100pt EXAM 2: 100 pt EXAM 3 (final): 150pt OVERVIEW CELL Macromolecules (carbon polymers) Central Dogma; how info is stored in a gene in a chromosome, how it’s transferred from DNA to RNA The cell & 2nd law of thermo; all matter seeks disorder Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote Mitosis & Meiosis; Mito blue print in chromosome transferred to offsprings Meiosis basic principles of heredity origin of life Organismal diversity (plant and animal) evolutionary perspective 1.6.2016 ▯ what constitutes a life form? cell CELL: ▯ unit of cytoplasm predominantly water water must be in liquid state for a cell to function quick freezeprevent ice crystal formation must be kept in Nitrogen, or else forms ice; death Within water, Ions Na+ Sodium (missing 1 e Ca++ calcium (missing 2 e Cl Chloride (extra e Metal ions Cu copper Fe+ iron Mg+ magnesium Zn + Zinc CYTOPLASM Composed of… water ions basic organic molecules > Amino Acids > Sugar (glucosehydro carbon, fructose, mannose) > Fatty acids > Nucleotides small organic complexes > ATP modified nucleotide ; shuttles energy around the cell > coenzymes (do not catalyze reactions , donates or take something(such as protons) away from a reaction= substrate … used in redox reaction > Vitamins: cannot make in your cells, must consume in diet essential to keep the cell functioning complex organic molecules (macromolecules) : carbon polymers 1. Nucleic Acids ex: DNA, RNA 2. Protein 3. Carbohydrates 4. Lipids macromolecular complexes > Ribosome : Protein + Nucleic Acid Complex ▯ bounded by a plasma membrane ▯ that is capable of replication with (duplicate itself) modification ▯ blue print of a cell: capable of change; mutation (ALL organisms change over time) Chem review atoms: smallest particle of an element elements basic substances in our universe by losing or gaining electron, becomes ion: charged particle HYDROGEN (H) OXYGEN (O) CARBON (C) NITROGEN (N) Covalent > Ionic #Covalent Bonds they can form H1 O2 (most electronegative) N3 C4 MACROMOLECULE ▯ what’s the building block ▯ how are they linked to each other ▯ unctions they are involved in ▯ chemical properties PROTEIN : a discrete chain of amino acids lined by peptide bonds(covalent linkage)(polypeptide) amino acids: positioned in order, that order defines the protein >Every protein has a discrete order of AA Functions: 1. as enzymes: catalyzes biological reaction ;provides a site where reaction can occur in a favorable way (@ physiological temp) 2. Channel Complexes in membranes: collection of proteins that can make a port that lets through ______ 3. Receptors: protein complexes on surface of cells. Plasma membrane: 1st to contact taste the env, then the interaction cause a biological effect inside of a cell &cells can communicate 4. Gene Regulatory Proteins: (=transcription factor) combined to a DNA and allows it to be turned on 5. Structural Proteins: within cells there are proteins that provide support 6. Amino acids can serve as an E source: AA can be used in metabolism General Property: hydrophilic (loves water) ▯ has issues when crossing the membrane (bc it’s hydrophobic) ▯ When a protein wants to enter the cell, meets with hydrophobic bilayer this interaction allows the send the message that protein was carrying Size: varies from 300 to several thousand daltons (as big as you want) made in central nerv sys and interact in the the pituitary AMINO ACID: contains… alpha carbon >something diff in each bond; amino group > carboxyl group: tail end of AA > substitution site: can put in H, Methal group, Benzene, …… 20 diff kinds on earth (see table in textbook) ▯ some are charged ▯ polar uncharged ;loves to be in water but doesn't carry any negative or positive charge ▯ non polar amino acids = hydrophobic, but when they have to tell with encounter water ▯ “special”; has weird groups such as Sulfur at the end Nonessential amino acids: amino acids that you can build within your cells. (12 types for humans) Essential amino acids: cannot build when absent, you are deficient, then you have trouble building proteins PEPTIDE BOND: ( see power point) unique peptide linkage bw carbon & nitrogen (very strong) cannot be broken except by an enzyme LEVELS OF PROTEIN STRUCTURE: 1. Primary: linear sequence of AA protein folds on themselves bc secondary structure 2. Secondary: spatial pattern in a region of polypeptide AA orient themselves in a cork screw manner to create Alpha helix structure Accordion manner: organization for protein silk 3. Tertiary: sum of all secondary structure (3D) SHAPE DICTATES FUNCTION (positive or negative) change in shape; by altering the env 4. Quaternary: 3D shape of a protein complex of 2+ polypeptides ex: hemoglobin
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