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CSCI A110: Intro to Computers and Computing
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verified elite notetaker
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Laurel Webb on Saturday January 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to a course at Indiana University taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 18 views.
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Date Created: 01/09/16
D103 Notes Week 9 Day 2 03/11/2015 ▯ The Russian Empire in 1866: Sphere of Influence Fascism, communism, monarchy? Mix? Born into classes which entitle you to participate in trade or merchant activates, and to own land or people (serfs) o This was changed by the French revolution, which was followed by the Napoleon dictatorship Issues: Autocracy: similar to the absolutist state, most common government in Europe from the 15 to the 19 century th o Should there be limits on government power? o Should serfdom continue? (Similar to asking the fortune 500 wealthy to give up mass amount of wealth) Started in the 17 century but was eliminated in 1861 ▯ What is a Document? ▯ Peasant commune? Nobles own the land Favors the nobility in every way. Communes were very democratic (male voices only) institution, which decided who had the right to use the land, decided discipline, and collect and distributed taxes throughout the community Democratic/socialist form of community where the wealth is redistributed throughout the community to keep the community wealthy o To gain control and wealth in Russia you had to control the work force ▯ Ideological Constellations: Enlightenment: intellectual foundations of your own knowledge, having to do with democracy and individual rights. Eastern Orthodox Church: form of Christianity, same as Greek orthodox o Differs very little from Catholicism As Russia expanded it moved into the East and into non-Slavic moistly Muslim peoples Deism: god is used as the origin story, but he is not a central factor of life. ▯ Napoleon’s Nation at Arms ▯ Impact of the Crimean War: 19 century: exported grain, largest grain exporter in the world o prosperity depended on getting its ships through the straights of Constantinople, which was controlled by the Ottoman Empire. o Charge of the light Brigade: British view or the war. o Showed Russia’s first signs of weakness, which allowed for a political realignment Made Russian rulers rethink their army structure things like universal drafts were considered but they could not convert to a universal draft with serfdom France: used it as a distraction from domestic policy England: rivalry for control over the Middle East ▯ Russian Reform: 1861- passed a document allowing serfs to own land, but they had to pay for it over 50 years. Legally they were free. But they were charged outrageous prices for the land, and were bound to the land until it was paid off. o Eliminated serfdom without causing a revolt from either side. Impact on Russia’s political and economic life. Serfdom was 80-90% of the population Emancipation forced the government to make changes, such as introducing local self governments to take care of local small issues. o Led to conflicting government styles: authoritarian on a high level and democratic on a local level. ▯ Germany and Bismarck linked warfare to industry and technology in a way that hadn’t been seen before. Made Russian borders very insecure 3 emperor alliance: Russia, Austria, and France 1890’s: Russia and France become allies, because they feel that Austria let them down in the Crimean War. o Links science and technology with prestige and power in a new way the world had yet to see ▯ Alexander II (1855-1881): conservative ruler who did not want to make large political changes He did not see hiss changes as moving towards a more democratic country Glasnost: openness, but there was overwhelming discontent with the ruling system o Educated society (under 10%) Slavophiles: people who believed that following the ways of the west and building institutions that had no roots in the country was wrong. Westernizers: believed that Russian should follow the path of the west and that it should move more quickly towards the western system th Alexander Herzen: greatest mementos of the 19 century? Wrote what became the cursed questions in Russia o What is wrong? o Who is to blame? o What is to be done? ▯ Nihilism: “belief in nothing” They do not believe in anything taught by their father’s generation. They reject the ways of privileged nobility. The older generation focused on literature and poetry, while the younger generation believes the country needs something else. Cultural movement (like the 60’s in the US) especially involved women o Women’s status: after the Crimean War “Questions of Life” article led to more women’s rights. Fictitious marriages for freedom, smoking in public, different types of dress o This was not a revolutionary movement, there was no civil unrest or attacks, yet. ▯ Populism: organized revolution Begins with 100 students and leads to 100,000 students who were the children of elite society who would’ve become elite members of society. The tsar became a hunted person, Alexander the II survives many attacks only to be killed in the street after he survives a bomb thrown at his carriage. He emerges from the carriage to treat the wounded and is killed by a second revolutionary with a bomb. Literature shouldn't be about self realization, it should be about what is wrong with society. o Art and the Wanders: no longer interested in still life portraits as they had been trained. They began to use art to contribute to change. ▯ Vemstvos ▯ What is the great reform: Military: conscription Revolution: industrial life? ▯ Alexander the II: Advisors: Mr. Victory (pv)- influenced heavily by Russian orthodox, heavily invested in keeping religion in the schools. He was against democracy and believed that a parliament would act in their own benefit, not in the interest of the people. ▯ There were vast populations of people moving around. There was seasonal work in cities but people would send money to the countryside and return back to the country when cities didn't have enough work. ▯ Growing Education level: Universities: 11/12 major universities in Russia, world class institutions, but at the beginning they were state run institutions available only to the upper class Secondary: more people moving into commerce or military life, and producing more teachers. They were rigorous state run institutions, with separation of boys and girls, but both were able to attend ▯ ▯ Repetition: Learn the components and outcomes of the Great reforms Education explosion: higher education=guarantee of prestige, takes away from the idea that Russia is a backward country, provides social and human capital Dual economy ▯ Status of women: Vulnerable Fathers were in control still even with educated women, but they had better property rights than western women. ▯
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