Week 2 - Chapter 2 Notes
Week 2 - Chapter 2 Notes PSY2012
Popular in General Psychology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabella Morles on Saturday January 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY2012 at University of Florida taught by Professor Kimberly Smith in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Florida.
Reviews for Week 2 - Chapter 2 Notes
If you want to pass this class, use these notes. Period. I for sure will!
-Dayne Schmidt PhD
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/09/16
General Psychology Ch. 2 Notes Research Methods Over time there have been many types of research in relation to people with disabilities. One of these is a facilitated communicator which is used by children with infantile autism which leads them to have a hard time communicating. Infantile autism is not a mental disorder but a motor problem. That is why for a facilitated communicator to work, you need a facilitator to help place the child's hands gently on the keyboard and help them type out their thoughts. However in some cases this type of communication brought to be the downfall for two families because their daughters were accusing their father of rape, with no physical evidence. This test has been preformed countless times in labs to see if it really is an extraordinary claim. A wall separates the child from the adult and the adult can not see the child's screen, so the child has to type what he or she sees with the help from a hole in the wall where the adult has his or her hand helping the child. Ruling out the rival hypothesis we find out from these studies that the word typed is actually the one on the facilitators screen, not the child's. so in the end this really does not work, sadly. In the end we learn something very important ..Research Design Matters The experiment above is more linked to pseudoscience; however, some medics have found real treatments to help kids with Autism. Another test that was more pseudoscience than real is the prefrontal lobotomy. Which was used to "cure" schizophrenia and other mental disorders. The surgery involved cutting the neural fibers that connected the brain's frontal lobes to the thalamus, which was very dangerous. The effectiveness was based on each subject and how the majority "got better" after the surgery. They did not really perform a systematic research to really understand if this procedure was effective. If they saw it worked that was enough for them. When they did research the procedure they found that it was not helpful it was actually damaging the patients even more. Research methods Why they matter? Well planned designs help eliminate bias when Examining different things. Anyone can be tricked Last chapter: Occam's Razor relies on principle of parsimony, Evolution has favored quick assessment of environmental situations Heuristics mental shortcuts or rules of thumb that we use daily, reduces cognitive energy required to solve problems, Subjective. should not be relied on System 1 thinking intuitive thinking these are the fast decisions we make like judging someone we just met or running of the road if there is a car coming towards you. This is actually very useful because it can keep us out of danger. System 2 thinking analytical thinking slow and reflective unlike intuitive thinking. We use this type of thinking when we are fixing a problem, when we figure out complicated formulas and problems. Sometimes this thinking can lead us to reject our hunches and think about something more. The old experiments mentioned, the researchers relied on intuitive thinking because since the patient improves, it must be working... which is wrong Research Designs make us think about stuff more and help us avoid using intuitive thinking as much. Heuristic is a mental shortcut that helps us to streamline our thinking and make sense of our world... so its just a shortcut that helps us think There is no one scientific method because their are different types of scientists that study and observe certain things differently. Their are different techniques used in different scientific methods. It pretty much just safeguards us from falling into traps. Research Designs: Naturalistic Observation is when you observe behavior in real world settings without manipulating the situation ... like when you study animals in their natural habitat we can’t study causation which is a problem but it has high external credit Case Studies it examines one person or a small number of people in detail, usually over a long period of time. again we can not infer causation and they are usually anecdotes but it can prove experiments and offer insights for more testing Correlation Designs the study of how two variables are linked we can use it to predict behavior but not infer causation can be positive, negative or zero Experimental Designs scientists manipulate variables to see if they produce differences. (experiment) we can finally infer causation with this one but its low on external credit (we can observe cause and effect) External Validity is when we generalize findings in real world settings Internal Validity is when we draw cause and effect from a study. Existence of Proof is when a psychological phenomenon can occur Surveys and questionnaires are very useful to help scientists find out what a person is thinking and feeling. Random Sample is when everyone in the population has the opportunity to be selected for a survey or study ... this is very important Reliability is the consistency of the measurement. when you study the results you need to focus on reliability and validity. Tests can be reliable but invalid validity is when the measure assesses what it purports to measure Self reported measures are sometimes not valid because most people lie to make themselves look better, like for a job application, also people do not know their personality to such a perfect extent. Response test is when research participants lie in their responses of questionnaires. Correlation design examined the extent to which two variables are related. Correlations: If its positive both are correlated and go up. (goes up) if its negative one goes up and one goes down, so its correlated but in the opposite direction. (goes down) If its zero, they do not go together at all The Halo effect is when people find attractive people as having good qualities. scatterplot is the grouping of points on a graph in which each dot represents a persons answer. Illusory Correlation when we perceive a correlation between 2 variables when there is none. (like the full moon is linked to lycanths or violent crimes) These types of correlations form superstitions, like walking under a ladder. We use the Great Fourfold Table of Life to figure out illusory probabilities. The reason we are lead to perceive illusory correlations is because we tend to remember dramatic experiences and if nothing happens we quite certainly won’t remember that. To minimize our tendencies, we just have to pay more attention to the other blocks in the table and consider that there could be another explanation. When we use correlation designs we have to be careful not to jump to casual conclusions. Correlation does not necessarily mean causation. Correlation VS Experimental Correlation has to do with measuring participants and experimental has to do with creating scenarios. For it to be an experiment it has randomly assign participants to conditions and it has to manipulate an independent variable. Random Assignment sorts participants into two groups randomly (experimental group which is manipulated and control group which is kept the same) This is not the same as random selection. Random selection has to do with how we choose our participants in the beginning and Random assignment is how we assign them after we have chosen them. Manipulation of an independent variable Independent variable is the one the scientist manipulates and the dependent is the one scientist measure to see if the manipulation has an effect. Operational definition is a working definition of what a researcher measures. Internal validity cause and effect – to be able to infer cause and effect the only difference between the groups has to be the independent variable. Confounding variable is any other variables that are different between both groups and won’t let us analyze cause and effect in the end. There are exceptions in experimental designs, like the Placebo Effect, the Nocebo Effect, the Experimenter Expectancy Effect and Demand Characteristics. Placebo Effect is the thought that you are improving because you know you are getting the treatment. (expectations can create reality). In medication research, scientists usually give a sugar pill (placebo) to the control group so they both think they are getting the treatment. However, for this to work the experiment needs to be blind (the participant does not know which treatment they are getting) If they find out those that have the real medication will think that since it’s the real one they will get better and the others will think they have to beat out those with the real medication. Nocebo Effect its harm resulting from the expectation of harm. Like voodoo, if someone is pricking a look alike doll with pins you think you are in pain. Experimenter Expectancy Effect this is when the scientist knows who is getting the treatment and unintentionally biases the outcome. It’s usually not on purpose, it’s more like a confirmation bias. This is why experiments are usually double blind the scientist nor the patient knows what he is getting and giving. Demand Characteristics cues that participants pick up from a study that allows them to generate guesses regarding the researcher’s hypothesis. Pretty much this is when participants think they know the right answers to the scientist’s hypothesis and alter their behavior and now it’s not unbiased. So scientists just give them a cover story for what they are really doing. Besides designing experiments, researchers also have to worry about ethical issues. Sometimes it’s hard because people do not agree with certain methods, ethical research is not clear cut. Tuskegee Study (19321972) • AA Men living in rural Alabama were diagnosed with syphilis • U.S. Public Health Service never informed of treated, the men, just studied the course of the disease (they just didn't tell them anything) • 28 men died of syphilis, 100 related complications, 40 wives infected and 19 children born with it. Monster study (1939) • 22 orphaned children assigned to control or experimental groups ◦ Positive speech therapy (praising) given to half of the children ◦ Negative speech (belittled them) given to the other half most had stutters in the end harmful physiological effects Informed Consent is when the researchers have to tell the participants what the study is about before asking them to participate. This is now required. A big ethical issue is animal research. Some studies have scientist creating small lesions in animals’ brains to test their behavior afterwards. Sometimes even activists against this idea help free animals or trash laboratories and it ends up in a bigger cost of damage. IRB (institutional review board) Informed consent Justification why you are going to use deception (can't be harmful) Debriefing subjects’ after Need to say everything about what you are going to do Statistics application of math to analyze and describe data. Descriptive stats describe data numerically Central tendency the measure of the center score of the data set Mean average Median middle score in data set Mode most frequent score in data set Variability measure of how loos or tight scores are. Range difference between highest and lowest scores Standard Deviation takes into account hoe far each data point is from the mean. Inferential Stats math methods that allow us to determine whether we can generalize findings from the sample to the population. The Scientific Method : Ask a Question Research Existing Sources Formulate a Hypothesis Design and Conduct a Study Draw Conclusions Report Results This method is used to test hypothesis and prove theories. It is good because it includes safeguards. Extra Info: In psych, selfreport questionnaires are commonly used to collect data in research designs other than surveys. A test must be reliable to be valid, BUT a reliable test can still be invalid.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'