CH. 3 Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Isabella Morles on Saturday January 9, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY2012 at University of Florida taught by Professor Kimberly Smith in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 127 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 01/09/16
General Psychology Ch. 3 Biological Psychology Howard Engel, a Canadian author, one day experienced a serious stroke. His eyes saw words as gibberish and the doctor said this was a condition from the stroke called “word blindness”. A stroke just means a “brain attack”, it’s a loss of neural tissues stemming from the cut off of blood supply to the brain. (Pretty much the brain can’t get enough blood and an attack occurs. Over time he was able to use his other senses to relearn how to read. The brain: reads, memorizes and thinks. (obviously what you are doing now). In ancient times it was known that the heart was the main source of mental activity. They thought this because they believed in common sense (we now know it’s bad). It was just a case of cause and correlation because they thought the heart had all these emotional reactions. Biological Psychologists (also known as Neuroscientists) are scientists that study the brain and spinal cord. Random Fact: Alcohol does not kill brain cells but it’s not safe to drink heavily because it can damage or destroy the dendrites of nerve cells (Aamodt and Wang, 2007; O’Conner, 2007) The brain’s simplest communicator is the cells. They work to produce our thoughts, feelings and behaviors. Neurons are nerve cells that are specific for communication (our brain depends on this, we have about 85 billion of them) They have long extensions so that it’s easier for them to respond to stimulation. Dendrite is the portion of a neuron that receives the signals. It’s the branch like extension that receives the information and spread it to the cell body. Axon is the portion of a neuron that sends the signals. (like phone transmitters) They message other neurons. They are long, thin tail like extensions that are near the cell body. Synaptic Vesicle is the tiny spherical sac that contains neurotransmitters that are chemical messengers that neurons use to communicate with each other. Cell Body is the middle region of a neuron, also called the soma. It provides continuous renewal of cell parts and it makes new cell components. Neurotransmitter is a chemical messenger specialized for communication from neuron to neuron. Synapse it’s a tiny fluid space between 2 linking neurons through which messages are transmitted chemically. Synaptic Cleft is a gap in which neurotransmitters are released from the axon terminal. Glial (glue) Cells are cells in the nervous system that play a role in the formation of the myelin and the blood-brain barrier. It responds to injury, removes debris, and enhances learning and memory. The most abundant is astrocytes, these communicate with neurons and increase the transmission reliability. These cells in general work with thought, memory and the immune system. Oligodendrocyte promotes new connections among nerve cells and release chemicals that are able to help heal. Myelin Sheath are types of glial cells enveloped around axons that act as insulator of the neuron’s signal. This sheath has plenty of gaps all around the axons called nodes, which helps conduct electricity. Motor cortex- part of the frontal lobe that is responsible for body movement. Prefrontal cortex- part of the frontal lobe that is responsible for thinking, planning and language. Contributes to mood, personality and self awareness. Broca’s area- is the language area in the prefrontal cortex that helps to control speech production. Central Sulcus- a deep grove in peoples brains that separates the frontal lobe from the rest of the cortex. Parietal Lobe- is the upper middle part of the cerebral cortex lying behind the frontal lobe that is specialized for touch and perception. Temporal Lobe- the lower part of the cerebral cortex that plays roles in hearing, understanding language and memory. The Primary Sensory Cortex is sensitive to touch (pain, pleasure and temperature). It processes information for the senses. Wernicke’s area- is part of the temporal lobe involved in understanding speech. The lower part of the temporal lobe is critical to storing memories of autobiographical events. Occipital Lobe- back part of the cerebral cortex that is specialized for vision. Association cortex- regions of the cerebral cortex that integrates simpler functions to perform more complex functions. Basal Ganglia- are structures in the forebrain that help control movement.
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