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Science of Language - Week 1 (Notes for 1/25 and 1/27)

by: Julia_K

Science of Language - Week 1 (Notes for 1/25 and 1/27) CSD-UE.1045

Marketplace > New York University > Linguistics and Speech Pathology > CSD-UE.1045 > Science of Language Week 1 Notes for 1 25 and 1 27
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About this Document

Introduction to Science of Language, Phonetics, and Grammar notes from the lecture.
Science of Language
Marisa Nagano
Class Notes
Linguistics, Science of Language, phonetics, Language




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia_K on Sunday January 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CSD-UE.1045 at New York University taught by Marisa Nagano in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Science of Language in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at New York University.

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Date Created: 01/10/16
Course: Science of Language  Week One: lectures 1 and 2 Professor Marisa Nagano January 25 and 27, 2016 Lecture 1: Introduction: What is Language? January 27, 2016 What exactly does “Science of Language” mean? Science of Language  Objective:  ­Language is a system in the speaker’s mind o Examine data as it is ­Focus is on spoken language (naturally o Don’t make value judgment  developed). about data  Descriptive: o Describes how people  actually speak  Explanatory: o Explain key questions i.e. “how do children learn language?” Linguistics – the scientific study of language. The language system has six subsystems: In Linguistics Terms: 1. Sounds     (Phonetics) 2. Sound patterns    (Phonology) 3. Word­formation   (Morphology) 4. Sentence­formation              (Syntax) 5. Meaning­interpretation             (Semantics) 6. Using words/sentences in context   (Pragmatics) Subfields of Linguistics: 1. Phonetics a. The study of speech sounds of human language b. Concerned with physical properties  therefore it is more universal c. i.e. [p] and [b] are articulated similarly with the lips 2. Phonology a. The study of sound patterns in individual language  3. Morphology a. The study of the structure of words b. Usually acquired early on in life (around 3 years) c. i.e. In English, adding –s to the end of a word makes it plural  4. Syntax a. The study of the structure of phrases and sentences b. i.e. English word order = Subject, Verb, Object whereas the Japanese word order = Subject, Object, Verb 5. Semantics  a. How meaning is composed from words and phrases b. i.e. the verb “love” = ongoing state but the verb “run” = describes an activity 6. Pragmatics – the study of word meaning in context. Studying the Language System: The Plot Thickens Common questions about the language system:     In Linguistics Terms: 1. How is the language system represented in the brain?  Neurolinguistics 2. How is the language system processed mentally?  Psycholinguistics (Reading tasks / eye movement trackers are used to answer this.) st 3. How is the language system nd uired by kids?  1  ndnguage acquisition 4. How do adults acquire a 2 language system?  2  language acquisition 5. How do language systems vary over time?  Historical linguistics (Researches study patterns/causes) 6. How do language systems vary among different social groups?  Sociolinguistics (Regional, ethnic, socioeconomic, etc.) What Language is NOT:  Orthography (spelling/punctuation)  Both are dependent on the  Literacy (decoding letters)  language system, not a part of  Writing Style it.  Organizing Paragraphs Irrelevant to the language system.  Prescriptive (made up) “grammar” rules  Focus is more on logic, rhetoric, cohesion, etc. o Language myths (i.e. “don’t split an infinitive”) o Prestige dialect forms o Some of these are historical forms that are kept alive today  Explicit knowledge of grammar o Don’t need to know meaning of verb, noun, suffix possessive to speak o We have an implicit knowledge of language Categorizing the fields of linguistics: Phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics are parts of the  language system that come from the native speakers’ judgments. whereas… st nd Neurolingusitics, Psycholinguistics, 1  and 2  language acquisitions, historical linguistics, and  Sociolinguistics show how the language system changes, exists in the brain, and is acquired.  Experimental data is used to assess this. Lecture 2: Phonetics 1 January 27, 2016    In Linguistics, “grammar” refers to a speaker’s:  Mental “grammar”: a language system in the speaker’s mind  The “grammar” of a language: a description of a particular language; emerges from  grammars of individual speakers. Properties of Grammars: 1 Systematic – follow their own internal set of rules 2 Generality – all languages have a grammar 3 Equality – “non­standard” varieties of a language have equally systematic grammars as  prestige varieties do. No such thing as a “primitive” base language 4 Universality – languages are alike in basic ways 5 Mutability – all languages change over time (and/or die out) 6 Inaccessible – grammatical knowledge of a language is subconscious Phonetics = Speech Sounds  Created when air from lungs enters the vocal folds and exits through the mouth/nose  2 major types:  o Consonants – sounds made with a constriction (when air is blocked in the mouth) o Vowels – sounds w/o a constriction  Consonants: There are 24 consonant sounds in English: (the chart on the next page lists all the consonant  sounds and the categories each one is placed in) The type of consonant sound being produced depends on Place, Manner, and Voice 1 Place: a  A location of constriction; where airflow is temporarily blocked. b Bilabial (lips touch), labiodentals (top teeth w/ lower lip), interdental (tongue  touches back of top teeth), alveolar (tongue touches alveolar ridge), post­alveolar  (tongue touches alveolar ridge further back), palatal (tongue touches soft palate),   glottal (air goes through glottis), velar (back of the tongue touches velum), and  labiovelar (back of tongue touches velum and lips are rounded) c Some foreign languages (like French) have uvular sounds (vibration of the uvula) 2 Manner:  a Means by which the sound is made b Fricatives, affricates, lateral, nasal, stops, approximants 3 Voice: a Open (voiceless) vs Closed (voiced and vibrating) vocal cords Additional guidelines about the chart** o Fricatives : air leaks out slowly o Plosive/Stop : air bursts out and then stops o Nasals : the velum stays down and lets the air flow through the nose [always voiced] o Affricatives : a combination of stops and fricatives o Approximants : tongue doesn’t fully make the constriction but comes close [always  voiced]


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