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Physiology Week 1 Notes: Jan 6-Jan 9

by: MBattito

Physiology Week 1 Notes: Jan 6-Jan 9 BIOL 3160

Marketplace > Clemson University > Biological Sciences > BIOL 3160 > Physiology Week 1 Notes Jan 6 Jan 9
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About this Document

These notes cover the lecture slides Professor McNutt went over in the first week of class.
Human Physiology
Dr. Tamara McNutt-Scott
Class Notes




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by MBattito on Sunday January 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 3160 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Tamara McNutt-Scott in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see Human Physiology in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 01/10/16
Week  1  Notes:  1/6-­‐1/8     Chapter  1:  The  Study  of  Body  Function     Physiology:     • Fundamentally  represents  the  study  of  how  living  organisms  work   o Molecules  à  cells  à  tissue  à  organ  à  organ  system   o How  organisms  accomplish  tasks  essential  for  life   • Function  and  integration   o Body  parts  work  together  at  various  levels  of  organization  and  whole   organism   o No  “part”  works  in  isolation   • Mechanisms  and  their  effects   o Sequence  of  events  à  parts  of  larger  stories   • Misconception:  all  is  known   History  of  Physiology:   • Aristotle:     o Speculated  on  function  of  human  body   o Good  health  associated  with  balance  of  humours   § Humours:  black  bile,  yellow  bile,  phlegm  and  blood   • Erasistratus:  “father  of  physiology”   o Applied  physical  laws  to  study  of  human  body   o Studied  cardiovascular  and  nervous  systems   o Performed  dissections  on  live  humans  à  noted  increase  in  heart  rate   • William  Harvey:     o First  to  study  biology  quantitatively   o One  of  the  first  to  be  able  to  accurately  describe  the  parts  of  the  body   and  systematic  circulationà  identified  parts  and  their  functions   • Claude  Bernard:  “father  of  modern  physiology”   o Observed  the  milieu  interieur   o Found  that  animals  possess  control  systems  that  could  adjust  to   external  and  internal  stimuli   o Internal  environment  remains  remarkably  constant  despite   constantly  changing  external  environment   Father  of  American  Physiology:  Robley  Dunglison   • In  the  early  19  century  in  the  US  physiology  was  treated  as  an  aspect  of   theory  and  practice  of  physics   • 1824:  Thomas  Jefferson  and  the  board  members  of  the  University  of  Virginia   added  Dunglison  to  the  first  faculty  of  the  U  of  VA   • Dunglison:   o English  physician     o Professor  of  Anatomy,  Physiology,  Surgery,  Materia  Medica,  Pharmacy   and  History  of  Medicine   o Teaching  was  an  explanation  of  “successive  theories”   o Published  several  books  and  articles   § Human  Physiology  (1832)  à  landmark  text   Homeostasis  and  Feedback  Control:   • Homeostasis:  maintenance  of  a  relatively  stable  internal  environment   o Basically  represented  by  the  state  of  equilibrium  of  the  body’s  internal   environment  by  dynamic  processes  of  feedback  and  regulation   o Reason  for  regulatory  mechanisms   o Is  not  an  easy  accomplishment   § Every  organ  system  is  involved  with  the  maintenance  and   necessitates  integrated  function   o Major  foundation  for  medical  diagnostic  procedures   • Walter  Cannon:  coined  the  term  homeostasis  in  his  book,  The  Wisdom  of  the   Body   • How  is  the  maintenance  of  homeostasis  accomplished?  Feedback   mechanisms   Feedback  Mechanism:  maintain  homeostasis   • Set  point:  normal  range  of  measurements  and  values   o Variable:  factor  or  event  being  regulated     • Control  systems  that  promote  homeostasis  are  characterized  by  3   interdependent  components:   o Receptor:  serve  as  sensors  to  determine  what  is  out  of  balance   § Uses  afferent  pathways  (sensory  pathways  toward  central   nervous  system)   o Control/integrating  center:  uses  efferent  pathways  (motor  pathways   away  from  central  nervous  system)   o Effector:  bring  balance  back   • Why  is  it  referred  to  as  a  “loop”?     o “Loop”  emphasizes  feedback  mechanism  is  a  continuous  cycle  to   maintain  homeostasis   • Is  our  internal  environment  absolutely  constant?    Are  we  always  in  a  state  of   balance?   o Our  internal  environment  is  not  absolutely  constant.  We  maintain  a   dynamic  balance  or  consistency;  that  is  overall  our  body  is  constant   within  a  range  but  is  not  absolutely  constant.  Conditions  stabilize   around  a  set  point;  they  must  be  in  the  range  so  physiological   processes  can  run  efficiently.   Negative  Feedback  Mechanism:  reverse  direction  control  mechanism   • Most  common  homeostatic  control  mechanism   • Works  because  output  of  system  causes  a  decrease  or  shuts  off  the  original   stimulus   o Continuous,  ongoing  processes   • All  negative  feedback  mechanisms  have  the  same  goal:  preventing  sudden,   severe  changes  in  the  body   • Antagonistic  effects:  effectors  have  antagonistic  actions,  allowing  for  finer   degree  of  control   • Integration  center  does  not  always  have  to  be  in  the  central  nervous  system   Positive  Feedback  mechanism:  same  direction  control  system   • Enhance  or  exaggerate  the  response  over  the  original  stimulus,  thus  the   output  is  increased   • Usually  control  episodic  or  infrequent  events  that  do  not  require  continuous   adjustments   o Ex:  blood  clotting,  breast  feeding,  parturition  (child  birth)   • Limited  occurrence  because  it  proceeds  with  very  little  control   Homeostatic  imbalance:   • Places  an  individual  at  higher  risk  of  disease   • Typically  a  result  of  certain  pathological  conditions  and  aging   Homeostatic  Regulation:   • Regulatory  mechanisms  for  homeostasis   o Intrinsic:  within  organ   o Extrinsic:  “outside”  organ   § Nervous  system:  impacts  homeostasis  via  nerves   § Endocrine  system:  impacts  homeostasis  via  hormones   • Advantages:  self  regulatory  and  self  initiated     • Disadvantages:  automatic  response  sometimes  does  not  help    


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