Stat 2013 week 2 notes
Stat 2013 week 2 notes Stat 2013
Popular in Elementary Statistics
Popular in Statistics
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Walker on Sunday January 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Stat 2013 at Oklahoma State University taught by Robert Adam Molnar in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Elementary Statistics in Statistics at Oklahoma State University.
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Date Created: 01/10/16
Week 2 Chapter 2 Graphs Frequency distribution- organization of raw data into a table with classes and frequency counts Categorical- uses defined classes Quantitative- create classes o Grouped frequency distribution Categorical Distribution Tables- Pets Total Percentage Dogs 75 75 Cats 15 15 Fish 10 10 Pie Chart Sales 1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr Shows single categorical variables Few categories Easy variables Different colors Donut chart Sales 1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr Better than pie, easier to read Grouped Distribution Class limits- labels Ex: 23-78 Class boundaries- actual division between groups Can be found by subtracting .5 or .05 to the lowest number and adding .5 or .05 to the highest number o Ex. 23-.5=22.5(lower boundary) 78+.5=78.5(upper boundary) Class width- from low boundary to upper boundary Can be found by subtracting the upper boundary from the lower boundary o 78.5-22.5= 56 Class midpoint- the mean of the upper and lower boundaries Can be found by adding the boundaries together and dividing by how many there are o 78.5+22.5 / 2= 50.5 Choosing class 1 observation to 1 class Exhaustive to cover all data Continuous without gaps Mutually exclusive without overlap Equal width, except the possibly open ended class on one or both ends Should have around 6-12 classes. Any more over 15 is uncommon and any less than 6 is too little. Graphics Good: provides context and a basis for interpretation True: representing data accurately without distortion Beautiful: pleasing to look at not ugly or overly complex Types of Errors Proportionality: effect size is neither too large nor too small Dimensionality: expanding one dimensional difference into many differences Lack of context: around the change including units Chart junk: focusing on the presentation of the chart more than the data Histograms, Bar graphs and Pareto charts All are rectangular in shape but have different uses Bar graph- used for non-continuous categories, categories are usually ordered alphabetically, they have spaces between bars www.mathisfun.com Pareto charts- used for non-continuous categories, categories are ordered from high to low by their frequencies, they have spaces between bars http://asq.org/img/laq/cause-analysis-tools-pareto.gif Histograms- used for continuous categories, ordered from low to high by value of variable, NO spaces between bars http://www.icoachmath.com/image_md/Histogram1.gif Frequency polygons- represents class counts with dots at the class midpoints and a line connects all the dots http://onlinestatbook.com/2/graphing_distributions/graphics/freq_poly.jpg These aren’t as common Ogive- line graph of a cumulative frequency distribution http://pip.ucalgary.ca/psyc-312/descriptive-statistics/displaying- data/pictures/1.jpg Shapes Bell- graph goes up then back down, the highest bar is in the middle http://i.stack.imgur.com/HQKeF.jpg Uniform- all bars are around the same size http://cdn.webservices.ufhealth.org/wp-content/blogs.dir/553/files/2012/07/images-mod1- histogram4.gif J-shaped- the highest bar is on the right side http://images.tutorvista.com/cms/images/67/Cumulative-Histogram.PNG Reverse J shaped- the highest bar is on the left side https://o.quizlet.com/WWoB8.7hNPj64ne6cxEOSw_m.png Skewed towards the highest bar Right skewed- the highest bar is on the right side https://faculty.elgin.edu/dkernler/statistics/ch02/images/shape-left-skewed.jpg Left skewed- the highest bar is on the left side http://www.statcrunch.com/grabimage.php?image_id=355207 Bimodal- the highest bar is on both left and right side http://www.pqsystems.com/qualityadvisor/images/bimodal.gif U-shaped- the highest bar is on the far right and far left http://www.pindling.org/Math/Statistics/Textbook/Chapter2_descript_stat/3d4ee15f.jpg Dot plots- one plot per observation https://www.mathsisfun.com/data/images/dot-plot-b.gif Pictograph- one picture per observation http://www.math-only-math.com/images/examples-on-pictograph.jpg Stem and leaf- displays data that is organized by place and value http://www.studyzone.org/mtestprep/math8/e/stemgrade.gif
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