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SOC 205 Chap 1 Notes

by: Alana Meyers

SOC 205 Chap 1 Notes MTH 122 - 13

Alana Meyers
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About this Document

These notes include the vocabulary from chapter one of the book "Social Problems sixth edition" by John J. Macionis. There are guidelines on what to study further, and notes directly from the lectu...
College Algebra
Michael J. Marmo
Class Notes




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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alana Meyers on Sunday January 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MTH 122 - 13 at Grand Valley State University taught by Michael J. Marmo in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see College Algebra in Applied Mathematics at Grand Valley State University.

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Date Created: 01/10/16
SOC 205 CHAP 1 Vocab Sociology Sociology – the systematic study of human societies Society – people who live within the same territory and share many patterns of behavior Culture – a way of life including widespread values (good/bad), beliefs (true/false), and behavior (daily life) Social Problem – a condition that undermines the well-being of some or all members of a society; usually public controversy (Social problems are socially constructed); can be experienced in a personal way Sociological imagination – a point of view that highlights how society affects the experiences we have and the choices we make (C. Wright Mills) Approaches Social-constructionist approach – the assertion that social problems arise as people define conditions as undesirable and in need of change Theoretical approach – a basic image of society that guides theory and research Structural-functional approach – a theoretical framework that sees society as a system of many interrelated parts Symbolic-interaction approach – a theoretical framework that sees society as the product of individuals interacting with one another Feminist Approach (gender conflict) Research Experiment – a research method for investigating cause-and-effect relationships under tightly controlled conditions Case study – in which a researcher focuses on a single case: a person, an organization, or an event (allows greater detail and depth, yet inability to generalize) Survey – a research method in which subjects respond to items on a questionnaire or in an interview Questionnaire – a series of items a researcher presents to subjects for their response (greater breadth of opinion) Interview – a more personal survey technique in which a researcher meets face to face wit respondents to discuss some issue (greater depth of understanding) Field research (participant observation) – a research method for observing people while joining them in their everyday activities Secondary analysis – a research method that makes use of data originally collected by others Participant – a person who is personally involved in the setting Observer – adopts a dethatched role in order to assess a setting or situation more objectively Statistics – the numerical results that researchers often include when they report their findings Theory Theory – a statement of how and why specific facts are related Multicultural Theory – hierarchy based on race and ethnicity Gender Conflict Theory – men’s dominance over women Learning Theory – people learn troublesome attitudes and behaviors from others around them Labeling Theory – states the reality of any particular situation depends on how people define it Public/Administrative Claim making – the process of convincing the public and important public officials that a particular issue/situation is a social problem Social movement – an organized effort at claims making that tries to shape the way people think about an issue in order to encourage or discourage social change Feminism – a political movement that seeks the social equality of women and men Social policy – formal strategies that affect how society operates Politics Political spectrum – a continuum representing a range of political attitudes from “left” to “right” Conservatives – look to the past for guidance on how to live; believe that the past is a store of wisdom developed by countless generations who have already faced many of the same questions and issues we face today; a “good” society is respectful of traditions and tries to conserve what earlier generations have learned; have special interest in family and religion; typically seek to limit the size and scope of government; tend to see “big government” as a problem because it threatens individual freedom and undermines peoples responsibility for their own well-being (Right) Liberals – think the people should be free from the past to decide on their own; a “good” society is one in which people are able to make choices for themselves; requires a society that is tolerant and respectful of individual rights; requires that categories of people be more or less equal in terms of basic rights and opportunities; have special interest in economy because of social institutions that distribute wealth and power; seek to expand size and scope of government; see government power as a solution because it is effective in reducing inequality to make desirable changes in a society(Left) Social Issues – political debates involving moral judgments about how people should live Economic issues – political debates about how a society should produce and distribute material resources Economic liberals – favor government regulation Economic conservatives – call for a smaller role for government in economy Stages in Social Movement (pg. 8-9) 1. Emergence 2. Coalescence 3. Formalization 4. Decline The 8 Assertions (pg. 9-11) 1. Social problems result from the way in which society operates 2. Social problems are not caused by bad people 3. Problems are socially constructed as people define a condition as harmful and in need of change 4. People see problems differently 5. Definitions of problems change over time 6. Problems involve subjective values as well as objective facts 7. Many –but not all- social problems can be solved 8. Various social problems are related Note:  Many of the personal troubles people face are really social issues with their roots in the operation of a larger society  C. Wright Mills helped group what is a personal problem versus a social issue  The Objective and Subjective Assessment of Social Issues diagram (pg. 6 Figure 1.1)  Determining social problems can be Subjective (quantified) vs. Objective (quantified)  Most social problems are linked together, but sociologists look for the root cause  Functionalism, conflict, and interactionism are the 3 theories in sociology (video)


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