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Chapter 15 Notes

by: Min-Young Kim

Chapter 15 Notes BIOL 3040

Marketplace > Clemson University > Biology > BIOL 3040 > Chapter 15 Notes
Min-Young Kim
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About this Document

These notes cover Chapter 15 in our book for Dr. Wells' class.
Biology of Plants
Christina Wells
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Min-Young Kim on Sunday January 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 3040 at Clemson University taught by Christina Wells in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Biology of Plants in Biology at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 01/10/16
Chapter  15:  Protists  –  Algae  and  Heterotrophic  Protists     -­‐ Protists:  eukaryotic  groups  that  do  not  have  distinctive  characteristics  of   plants,  animals,  or  fungi   o Algae:  photosynthetic  group  of  protists   § Green  algae:  17,000  species;  chlorophylls  a  and  b,  carotenoids;   starch  food  reserve;  none  or  2  flagella  (apical  or  subapical,   equal  or  unequal,  smooth);  in  cell  surface,  there  are   glycoproteins,  noncellulose  polysaccharides  or  cellulose,   plasmodesmata  sometimes;  mostly  aquatic  (freshwater  or   marine);  many  in  symbiotic  relationships   o Oomycetes  and  slime  molds   -­‐ Protists  have  an  array  of  body  types,  body  sizes,  and  means  of  reproduction   -­‐ Phylogenetic  relationships  are  not  yet  firmly  established  (e.g.  relationship   between  green  and  red  algae;  between  plasmodial  and  cellular  slime  molds)   -­‐ Biosphere:  open  sea,  shore,  and  land.  Algae  dominate  in  freshwater  habitats,   too.  Rocky  shores  have  more  complex  algae  and  seaweed.  Intertidal  zones   subject  to  large  fluctuations  of  humidity,  temperature,  salinity,  light,  forceful   water.     -­‐ Plankton:  minute  photosynthetic  cells  and  tiny  animals  in  all  bodies  of  water   -­‐ Phytoplankton:  photosynthetic  algae  and  cyanobacteria,  beginning  of  food   chain.   -­‐ Zooplankton:  heterotrophic  plankton,  consisting  of  tiny  crustaceans,  larvae,   heterotrophic  protists,  and  bacterioplankton   -­‐ Mariculture:  marine  organisms  cultivated  in  natural  environment,  and   analogous  to  terrestrial  agricultural  systems   -­‐ Cultivation  of  algae  for  biofuel  production:  one  answer  to  energy  problem.     o Fermentation  of  algal  biomass   o Industrial  growth  of  algae  for  oil  extraction   -­‐ “Blooms”:  undesirable  proportions  of  algae;  correlate  with  release  of  large   quantities  of  toxic  compounds  into  water   -­‐ Algae  important  to  carbon  cycling:  transform  carbon  dioxide  into   carbohydrates  by  photosynthesis  and  calcium  carbonate  by  calcification   -­‐ Charophyceae:  unicellular,  colonial  filamentous  and  parenchymatous  genera.     o Related  to  bryophytes  and  vascular  plants  by  presence  of   asymmetrical  flagellated  cells,  breakdown  of  nuclear  envelope  during   mitosis,  phragmoplasts  at  cytokinesis,  phytochrome,  flavonoids,   chemical  precursors  of  cuticle,  etc.   o Mesostigma:  unicellular  freshwater,  scaly  flagellate   o Chlorokybus:  rare  terrestrial  or  freshwater  green  alga   o Klebsormidium:  freshwater,  unbranched  filament   o Spirogyra:  unbranched,  filamentous,  forms  frothy  floating  masses  in   freshwater.  Helical  arrangement  of  chloroplasts,  with  numerous   pyrenoids,  within  each  uninucleate  cell.     § Asexual  reproduction  by  cell  division  and  fragmentation.  No   flagellated  cells.  Conjugation  tube  forms  between  two   filaments.  Isogametes  form.  Fertilization  may  occur  in  tube  or   other  filament.  Zygotes  surrounded  by  thick  walls  containing   sporopollenin  (help  survive  harsh  conditions)   o Desmids:  freshwater  green  algae  related  to  Spirogyra.  Lack   flagellated  cells,  two  semi-­‐cells  joined  by  isthmus.  Found  in  peat  bogs   and  ponds  with  little  nutrients   -­‐ Coleochaetales  and  Charales  resemble  bryophytes  and  vascular  plants  more   than  other  charophytes  by  cell  division  and  reproduction   o Oogamous,  sperm  similar  to  bryophytes   -­‐ Chlorophyte  clade:  most  of  green  algae   -­‐ Streptophyte  clade:  Coleochaetales,  Charales,  zygnemataleans,  early   divergent  members,  bryophytes,  and  vascular  plants   -­‐ Coleochaete:  ~20  species,  on  surface  of  submerged  rocks  or  freshwater   plants;  reproduce  asexually  by  zoospores;  sexual  reproduction  is  oogamous;   similar  transfer  cells  (nutrient  transport)  within  parental  cells  as  found  in   gametophyte-­‐sporophyte  junction  of  bryophytes  and  vascular  plants.     -­‐ Charales  also  exhibit  apical  growth;  thallus  differentiated  into  nodal  and   intermodal  regions;  sperm  (only  flagellated  cells)  produced  in  multicellular   antheridia;  eggs  in  oogonia.  Sporopollenin  is  component  in  walls  of  plant   spores  and  pollen.    


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