Chapter 15 Notes
Chapter 15 Notes BIOL 3040
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Min-Young Kim on Sunday January 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 3040 at Clemson University taught by Christina Wells in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Biology of Plants in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 01/10/16
Chapter 15: Protists – Algae and Heterotrophic Protists -‐ Protists: eukaryotic groups that do not have distinctive characteristics of plants, animals, or fungi o Algae: photosynthetic group of protists § Green algae: 17,000 species; chlorophylls a and b, carotenoids; starch food reserve; none or 2 flagella (apical or subapical, equal or unequal, smooth); in cell surface, there are glycoproteins, noncellulose polysaccharides or cellulose, plasmodesmata sometimes; mostly aquatic (freshwater or marine); many in symbiotic relationships o Oomycetes and slime molds -‐ Protists have an array of body types, body sizes, and means of reproduction -‐ Phylogenetic relationships are not yet firmly established (e.g. relationship between green and red algae; between plasmodial and cellular slime molds) -‐ Biosphere: open sea, shore, and land. Algae dominate in freshwater habitats, too. Rocky shores have more complex algae and seaweed. Intertidal zones subject to large fluctuations of humidity, temperature, salinity, light, forceful water. -‐ Plankton: minute photosynthetic cells and tiny animals in all bodies of water -‐ Phytoplankton: photosynthetic algae and cyanobacteria, beginning of food chain. -‐ Zooplankton: heterotrophic plankton, consisting of tiny crustaceans, larvae, heterotrophic protists, and bacterioplankton -‐ Mariculture: marine organisms cultivated in natural environment, and analogous to terrestrial agricultural systems -‐ Cultivation of algae for biofuel production: one answer to energy problem. o Fermentation of algal biomass o Industrial growth of algae for oil extraction -‐ “Blooms”: undesirable proportions of algae; correlate with release of large quantities of toxic compounds into water -‐ Algae important to carbon cycling: transform carbon dioxide into carbohydrates by photosynthesis and calcium carbonate by calcification -‐ Charophyceae: unicellular, colonial filamentous and parenchymatous genera. o Related to bryophytes and vascular plants by presence of asymmetrical flagellated cells, breakdown of nuclear envelope during mitosis, phragmoplasts at cytokinesis, phytochrome, flavonoids, chemical precursors of cuticle, etc. o Mesostigma: unicellular freshwater, scaly flagellate o Chlorokybus: rare terrestrial or freshwater green alga o Klebsormidium: freshwater, unbranched filament o Spirogyra: unbranched, filamentous, forms frothy floating masses in freshwater. Helical arrangement of chloroplasts, with numerous pyrenoids, within each uninucleate cell. § Asexual reproduction by cell division and fragmentation. No flagellated cells. Conjugation tube forms between two filaments. Isogametes form. Fertilization may occur in tube or other filament. Zygotes surrounded by thick walls containing sporopollenin (help survive harsh conditions) o Desmids: freshwater green algae related to Spirogyra. Lack flagellated cells, two semi-‐cells joined by isthmus. Found in peat bogs and ponds with little nutrients -‐ Coleochaetales and Charales resemble bryophytes and vascular plants more than other charophytes by cell division and reproduction o Oogamous, sperm similar to bryophytes -‐ Chlorophyte clade: most of green algae -‐ Streptophyte clade: Coleochaetales, Charales, zygnemataleans, early divergent members, bryophytes, and vascular plants -‐ Coleochaete: ~20 species, on surface of submerged rocks or freshwater plants; reproduce asexually by zoospores; sexual reproduction is oogamous; similar transfer cells (nutrient transport) within parental cells as found in gametophyte-‐sporophyte junction of bryophytes and vascular plants. -‐ Charales also exhibit apical growth; thallus differentiated into nodal and intermodal regions; sperm (only flagellated cells) produced in multicellular antheridia; eggs in oogonia. Sporopollenin is component in walls of plant spores and pollen.
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