Chapter 12 Notes
Chapter 12 Notes BIOL 3040
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Min-Young Kim on Sunday January 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 3040 at Clemson University taught by Christina Wells in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Biology of Plants in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 01/10/16
Chapter 12: Systematics -‐ Systematics: scientific study of biological diversity and evolutionary history. To discover all branches of phylogenetic tree of life -‐ Taxonomy: identifying, naming, classifying species o Carl Linnaeus – polynomials: proper names for species. Binomial system of nomenclature (genus, specific epithet, type specimen) o Category: level at which taxon is ranked. Taxa are within categories o Plant families usually end in –aceae. Plant orders end in –ales. o Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species -‐ Artificial systems: classify organisms as aid to identification and by means of one or a few characters -‐ Phylogeny: products of evolutionary history. Phylogenetic trees: depict genealogic relationships between taxa as hypothesized -‐ Natural classifications: accurate reflection of evolutionary relationships -‐ Monophyletic group: (clade) composed of ancestor and all descendants -‐ Paraphyletic group: common ancestor, but not all descendants -‐ Polyphyletic group: group with two or more ancestors, but not including true common ancestor -‐ Homologous: evolutionary modifications of same type of organ, but with different functions. Help construct evolutionary classification systems -‐ Analogous: as a result of convergent evolution, have similar function and superficial appearance, but different evolutionary backgrounds -‐ Cladistics: (form of phylogenetic analysis) branching one lineage from another through evolution -‐ Synapomorphies: shared derived characters, arose in common ancestor of group and present in all members -‐ Outgroup: taxon closely related but not member of study group under investigation (ingroup) -‐ Cladogram: graphical representation of a hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships. o Sister groups: closest relatives, share common ancestor o Principle of parsimony: Cladogram should be constructed in simplest, most efficient way -‐ Inverted repeats: regions that encode same genes, but in opposite directions, found within chloroplast -‐ DNA Barcoding allows rapid identification of species (Paul Hebert) -‐ World is divided into three domains – Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya -‐ Eukarya divided into supergroups (between domain and kingdom): Alveolata, Stramenopila, Rhizaria, Excavata, Opisthokonta, Amoebozoa, Plants and algal relatives -‐ Serial endosymbiotic theory: mitochondria and chloroplasts descended from bacteria taken up by ancient host cell. o Endosymbiont: organism that lives with another, dissimilar organism. Mitochondria appeared before chloroplasts o Prokaryotic host cell into primitive phagocyte (engulf large particles). o Wall-‐less heterotroph with flexible plasma membrane and development of cytoskeleton allowed mechanism to capture food by endocytosis. Lysosomes fused with food vacuoles, breaking compounds into usable organic products. Intracellular membranes from plasma membrane compartmentalized host cells into endomembrane system of eukaryotic cell. (nucleus possibly from membrane too) -‐ Phagocyte doesn’t digest mitochondrial precursors, but lives together. -‐ Vorticella and Chlorella: algal cells provide photosynthetic products for heterotrophic host, and algae receive mineral nutrients -‐ Transformation of endosymbiont into organelle: loss of endosymbiont’s cell wall and unnecessary structures. DNA transferred to host’s nucleus. Self-‐ replicating organelles. -‐ Mitochondria evolved from alpha-‐proteobacterium. Chloroplasts evolved from cyanobacterial endosymbionts by three major types: o Primary endosymbiosis: cyanobacterial cells ingested evolve into primary plastids; two membranes (red and green algae, glaucophytes) o Secondary endosymbiosis: eukaryotic cells containing plastids engulfed by another eukaryotic cell and evolve into secondary plastids; three or four membranes (haptophytes, cryptomonads, euglenoids, dinoflagellates, stramenopiles) o Tertiary endosymbiosis: eukaryotic cell has plastid derived from eukaryotic endosymbiont with secondary plastid; more than two membranes (cryptomonads, haptophytes, diatom endosymbionts) -‐ Fungi: non motile, filamentous eukaryotes lacking plastids and photosynthetic pigments, absorb nutrients from dead or living organisms; sexual and asexual reproduction -‐ Animals: multicellular organisms with eukaryotic cells lacking cell walls, plastids, photosynthetic pigments; ingestive; sexual reproduction -‐ Protists: paraphyletic. Protozoa (heterotrophic) and algae (autotrophic); water molds, plasmodial/cellular slime molds; cell division, sexual reproduction -‐ Plants: multicellular, made of eukaryotic cells with vacuoles and cell walls of cellulose. Photosynthesis; primarily sexual, alternation of generations -‐ Two haploid cells combined to form diploid zygote repeatedly; zygotic meiosis; restore haploid condition o Gametic meiosis: production of gametes (animals, protists, green and brown algae). Gametes fuse and restore diploid state. o Sporic meiosis: in plants, reproduction of spores, divide directly by mitosis to produce multicellular haploid organism (plants, brown, red, and green algae) -‐ Alternation of generations: alternation of haploid, gamete-‐producing generation (gametophyte) and diploid, spore-‐producing generation (sporophyte) -‐ Isomorphic generations: life cycles with same external appearance in haploid and diploid forms. -‐ Heteromorphic generations: different appearance between haploid and diploid generations o Bryophytes: gametophyte nutritionally independent and larger than sporophyte o Vascular plants: sporophyte much larger and complex -‐ Diploidy permits more storage of genetic information. Trend: increasing dominance of sporophyte and repression of gametophyte
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