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Chapter 12 Notes

by: Min-Young Kim

Chapter 12 Notes BIOL 3040

Marketplace > Clemson University > Biology > BIOL 3040 > Chapter 12 Notes
Min-Young Kim
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These notes cover book material from Chapter 12 for Dr. Wells' Biology of Plants class.
Biology of Plants
Christina Wells
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Min-Young Kim on Sunday January 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 3040 at Clemson University taught by Christina Wells in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Biology of Plants in Biology at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 01/10/16
Chapter  12:  Systematics     -­‐ Systematics:  scientific  study  of  biological  diversity  and  evolutionary  history.   To  discover  all  branches  of  phylogenetic  tree  of  life   -­‐ Taxonomy:  identifying,  naming,  classifying  species   o Carl  Linnaeus  –  polynomials:  proper  names  for  species.  Binomial   system  of  nomenclature  (genus,  specific  epithet,  type  specimen)   o Category:  level  at  which  taxon  is  ranked.  Taxa  are  within  categories   o Plant  families  usually  end  in  –aceae.  Plant  orders  end  in  –ales.   o Kingdom,  Phylum,  Class,  Order,  Family,  Genus,  Species   -­‐ Artificial  systems:  classify  organisms  as  aid  to  identification  and  by  means   of  one  or  a  few  characters   -­‐ Phylogeny:  products  of  evolutionary  history.  Phylogenetic  trees:  depict   genealogic  relationships  between  taxa  as  hypothesized   -­‐ Natural  classifications:  accurate  reflection  of  evolutionary  relationships   -­‐ Monophyletic  group:  (clade)  composed  of  ancestor  and  all  descendants     -­‐ Paraphyletic  group:  common  ancestor,  but  not  all  descendants   -­‐ Polyphyletic  group:  group  with  two  or  more  ancestors,  but  not  including   true  common  ancestor   -­‐ Homologous:  evolutionary  modifications  of  same  type  of  organ,  but  with   different  functions.  Help  construct  evolutionary  classification  systems   -­‐ Analogous:  as  a  result  of  convergent  evolution,  have  similar  function  and   superficial  appearance,  but  different  evolutionary  backgrounds   -­‐ Cladistics:  (form  of  phylogenetic  analysis)  branching  one  lineage  from   another  through  evolution   -­‐ Synapomorphies:  shared  derived  characters,  arose  in  common  ancestor  of   group  and  present  in  all  members   -­‐ Outgroup:  taxon  closely  related  but  not  member  of  study  group  under   investigation  (ingroup)     -­‐ Cladogram:  graphical  representation  of  a  hypothesis  of  phylogenetic   relationships.     o Sister  groups:  closest  relatives,  share  common  ancestor   o Principle  of  parsimony:  Cladogram  should  be  constructed  in   simplest,  most  efficient  way   -­‐ Inverted  repeats:  regions  that  encode  same  genes,  but  in  opposite   directions,  found  within  chloroplast   -­‐ DNA  Barcoding  allows  rapid  identification  of  species  (Paul  Hebert)   -­‐ World  is  divided  into  three  domains  –  Bacteria,  Archaea,  Eukarya     -­‐ Eukarya  divided  into  supergroups  (between  domain  and  kingdom):   Alveolata,  Stramenopila,  Rhizaria,  Excavata,  Opisthokonta,  Amoebozoa,   Plants  and  algal  relatives   -­‐ Serial  endosymbiotic  theory:  mitochondria  and  chloroplasts  descended   from  bacteria  taken  up  by  ancient  host  cell.     o Endosymbiont:  organism  that  lives  with  another,  dissimilar   organism.  Mitochondria  appeared  before  chloroplasts   o Prokaryotic  host  cell  into  primitive  phagocyte  (engulf  large  particles).     o Wall-­‐less  heterotroph  with  flexible  plasma  membrane  and   development  of  cytoskeleton  allowed  mechanism  to  capture  food  by   endocytosis.  Lysosomes  fused  with  food  vacuoles,  breaking   compounds  into  usable  organic  products.  Intracellular  membranes   from  plasma  membrane  compartmentalized  host  cells  into   endomembrane  system  of  eukaryotic  cell.  (nucleus  possibly  from   membrane  too)   -­‐ Phagocyte  doesn’t  digest  mitochondrial  precursors,  but  lives  together.     -­‐ Vorticella  and  Chlorella:  algal  cells  provide  photosynthetic  products  for   heterotrophic  host,  and  algae  receive  mineral  nutrients   -­‐ Transformation  of  endosymbiont  into  organelle:  loss  of  endosymbiont’s  cell   wall  and  unnecessary  structures.  DNA  transferred  to  host’s  nucleus.  Self-­‐ replicating  organelles.     -­‐ Mitochondria  evolved  from  alpha-­‐proteobacterium.  Chloroplasts  evolved   from  cyanobacterial  endosymbionts  by  three  major  types:     o  Primary  endosymbiosis:  cyanobacterial  cells  ingested  evolve  into   primary  plastids;  two  membranes  (red  and  green  algae,  glaucophytes)     o Secondary  endosymbiosis:  eukaryotic  cells  containing  plastids   engulfed  by  another  eukaryotic  cell  and  evolve  into  secondary   plastids;  three  or  four  membranes  (haptophytes,  cryptomonads,   euglenoids,  dinoflagellates,  stramenopiles)   o Tertiary  endosymbiosis:  eukaryotic  cell  has  plastid  derived  from   eukaryotic  endosymbiont  with  secondary  plastid;  more  than  two   membranes  (cryptomonads,  haptophytes,  diatom  endosymbionts)     -­‐ Fungi:  non  motile,  filamentous  eukaryotes  lacking  plastids  and   photosynthetic  pigments,  absorb  nutrients  from  dead  or  living  organisms;   sexual  and  asexual  reproduction   -­‐ Animals:  multicellular  organisms  with  eukaryotic  cells  lacking  cell  walls,   plastids,  photosynthetic  pigments;  ingestive;  sexual  reproduction     -­‐ Protists:  paraphyletic.  Protozoa  (heterotrophic)  and  algae  (autotrophic);   water  molds,  plasmodial/cellular  slime  molds;  cell  division,  sexual   reproduction   -­‐ Plants:  multicellular,  made  of  eukaryotic  cells  with  vacuoles  and  cell  walls  of   cellulose.  Photosynthesis;  primarily  sexual,  alternation  of  generations   -­‐ Two  haploid  cells  combined  to  form  diploid  zygote  repeatedly;  zygotic   meiosis;  restore  haploid  condition   o Gametic  meiosis:  production  of  gametes  (animals,  protists,  green  and   brown  algae).  Gametes  fuse  and  restore  diploid  state.     o Sporic  meiosis:  in  plants,  reproduction  of  spores,  divide  directly  by   mitosis  to  produce  multicellular  haploid  organism  (plants,  brown,  red,   and  green  algae)   -­‐ Alternation  of  generations:  alternation  of  haploid,  gamete-­‐producing   generation  (gametophyte)  and  diploid,  spore-­‐producing  generation   (sporophyte)   -­‐ Isomorphic  generations:  life  cycles  with  same  external  appearance  in   haploid  and  diploid  forms.     -­‐ Heteromorphic  generations:  different  appearance  between  haploid  and   diploid  generations   o Bryophytes:  gametophyte  nutritionally  independent  and  larger  than   sporophyte   o Vascular  plants:  sporophyte  much  larger  and  complex   -­‐ Diploidy  permits  more  storage  of  genetic  information.  Trend:  increasing   dominance  of  sporophyte  and  repression  of  gametophyte  


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