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Biol 3302: week 1 notes

by: Nicholas Woodall

Biol 3302: week 1 notes BIOL 3302

Nicholas Woodall
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This covers the first week of notes from lecture.
Anatomy and Physiology
Class Notes
Anatomy & Physiology




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicholas Woodall on Sunday January 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 3302 at Idaho State University taught by Frank in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Anatomy and Physiology in Biological Sciences at Idaho State University.

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Date Created: 01/10/16
Study sessions: Che 108 M&W 11:30am-12:30pm Biol 3302-03 Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 16: The Endocrine System Write down something you know and a question you have about the endocrine system: The endocrine system is a system that, with many parts, regulates hormones. What affects do abnormalities in the pituitary gland cause? Main role of the endocrine system: to maintain homeostasis Pre-regulates  Reproduction  Growth & development  Immune system  Water and salt balance  Metabolism & energy Characteristics: 1. Major endocrine organs a. They secrete hormones into glands 2. Minor endocrine organs a. Main role is not to secrete hormones, however they still produce hormones. Such organs are the stomach, heart, small intestine, and others. 3. Hormones a. Small, signaling molecules b. Secreted from a gland; enters blood for transport c. Act on a distant target d. Endocrine vs. Exocrine i. Endocrine: goes into blood (ex: pituitary gland, pineal gland) ii. Exocrine: goes into a duct, which leads to somewhere (not blood) (ex: pancreas, sebaceous gland) 4. Regulates activities of the body: a. Gland secretes hormone » blood vessel » target tissue = response from target tissue i. Responses can be: 1. To divide (mitosis) 2. To secrete 3. To make proteins 4. To activate or deactivate a protein ii. A hormone is a signaling molecule 1. Which is how tissues communicate b. Types of signaling molecules: i. Endocrine: 1. Hormones » a long-distance chemical that travels in the blood or by lymph 2. Autocrine: chemical that exert effects on some cells that secrete them (a cell of a specific type communicating with another cell of the same type) 5. Regulated secretion rate: a. Humoral regulation i. Things* in blood that trigger a release of a hormone 1. Ex: glucose in blood: a. If high levels; insulin is secreted b. If low levels; glucagon is secreted 2. Ex; ???????? ; if low, then PTH is secreted b. Neural i. A neuron signals a tissue to secrete something 1. Ex; sympathetic neurons send signal to adrenal gland and the adrenal gland then secretes epinephrine c. Hormonal (hormones) i. Triggers secretion of other hormones 1. Ex; Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) » Thyroid » Release ???? & ???? (thyroid hormones) = stop 3 4 secretion of TSH (This example happens to also be an example of a negative feedback system!) 6. Hormone interaction with target tissue a. Receptor binds hormone until it degrades i. Which means it is reversible and requires a specific binding b. Levels of a hormone can change i. Increased regulation 1. Increase in receptors for a greater response ii. Decreased regulation 1. Decrease in receptor for a lesser response c. Locations i. Cell’s surface 1. Receptors are embedded in the plasma membrane a. All bind only water-soluble hormones 2. Many different types of receptors 3. Signal mechanism involving cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate) a. H binds R b. R changes shape c. Activates an associated G-protein to “on” i. Intracellular 1. Binds GDP = off 2. Binds GTP = on d. “On” G-protein activates i. Adenylate cyclase (Ac) e. AC “makes” cAMP f. cAMP activates existing protein kinase A g. PKA activates existing proteins h. Responds 4. In summary st a. 1 messenger hormone (1) binds to the cell’s receptor (it does not pass through the membrane because it is too large of a nd molecule) the receptor kicks off a 2 messenger, activated from the previous binding. The 2 messenger hormone is cAMP which reacts with a protein inside the cell to release PKA. cAMP effects phosphodiesterase which turns AMP molecules into ADP, which is turned into ATP (the cellular chemical used as energy) by another protein. ii. Intracellular 1. Bind the insoluble hormones (fatty hormones) 2. Bind; a. Steroid hormones i. Ex; Testosterone, estrogen, cortisol, aldosterone b. Thyroid hormones i. Ex; ???? & ???? 3 4 3. When H binds its R » H-R complex bind regulatory regions of DNA » changes gene expression = response a. Ex; Testosterone released by Leydig cells (of testis) » blood » hoar follicles of face » H binds R = H-R complex » binds to DNA to tell cell to make/grow hair. b. Ex; ???? 3 ???? r4leased from thyroid » blood » most cells of the body » increase enzymes for increased energy production The pituitary gland: 1. Secretes 8 major hormones 1. Oxytocin 2. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) 3. Growth hormone (GH) 4. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) 5. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) 6. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) 7. Luteinizing hormone (LH) 8. Prolactin (PRL) 2. Location: Medial, anterior to the midbrain, and inferior to the hypothalamus 3. 2 lobes: anterior lobe and posterior lobe 1. Posterior lobe: neurohypophysis i. Made of neural tissue ii. Connected to hypothalamus via the infundibulum (the stalk) pg. 604. iii. Receives, stores, & releases ADH and oxytocin 1. ADH and oxytocin are neurohormones a. Made by neurons in hypothalamus b. Stored in posterior pituitary c. Released into blood 2. Antidiuretic hormone “vasopressin” a. Role: Anti-diuretic “stop-urine formation” to avoid dehydration from making too much urine + b. Trigger for release: ???????? receptors i. Counts concentration ii. When concentrations are high = ADH release iii. When concentrations are low = stop ADH secretion c. Target: Kidneys » kidney tubule cells i. Response from kidney tubule cells: 1. Make urine concentrated ii. Body response: 1. Cardiovascular response to increased water in blood = increased blood pressure d. Possible disease: i. Diabetes insipidus “urine lots” 1. Which causes excess urine output which causes a lack of important ions! 2. Caused by a lack of ADH 3. Oxytocin: Posterior pituitary neurohormone a. Role: i. Female: Uterine contraction & milk let-down ii. Male: Evidence that it may increase pair bonding (during coitus) b. Trigger: i. Female: at end of reproductive term it is stimulated by: 1. Uterine contractions 2. During suckling ii. Male: stimulated release during 1. Human interaction during intercourse c. Targets: i. Uterus myometrium 1. Positive feedback mechanism (which is stopped by final release of placenta during birth) a. Oxytocin levels increase » uterine contraction » oxytocin levels increase »… 2. Mammary gland a. Milk let-down 3. Brain a. Socialized behavior for bonding d. Diseases: i. No known diseases


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