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Psy 202 Week 1

by: Noah Notetaker

Psy 202 Week 1 PSY 202

Noah Notetaker
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Week 1 notes for psychology 202
Mind and Society
Pennefather J
Class Notes




Popular in Mind and Society

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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Noah Notetaker on Sunday January 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 202 at University of Oregon taught by Pennefather J in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Mind and Society in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.


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Date Created: 01/10/16
PSY 202 Intuition and common sense -Many people believe that intuition and common sense are enough to bring forth answers regarding human nature -Intuition and common sense might help inquiries, but are not free from error Hindsight bias: the belief that after learning something, that one could have predicted this beforehand Why Psychology? 1. How can we differentiate between uninformed opinions and examined conclusions? 2. The science of psychology helps make these examined conclusions, leading to our understanding of how people feel, think, and act as they do Seven Themes of Psychological Science 1. Empirical science a. Scientific method: objective and systematic procedures used to understand what is studied b. Understanding how science is conducted makes it possible to determine which studies are credible and which ones are not 2. Nature and nurture a. Are characteristics biologically innate or acquired through education/culture b. Psychologists recognize both as extremely important 3. Mind and brain a. The mind is what the brain does, there is no dualism that splits the mind from the body b. Psychological scientists almost universally reject dualistic thinking 4. New Biological Revolution a. Growth in understanding biological basis for mental activities b. Interest in biology paramount in psychology 5. Mind is adaptive a. Brain has evolved to solve problems b. Mind is adaptive in both biological and cultural terms (genetic mutations) c. Evolutionary theory: we have the capacity to move beyond past human mechanisms. Need to be aware of challenges of ancestors to understand current behavior. (Sweet and fatty food, mating preferences) d. Mating preferences: males look for youthful females while women look for men who have status and dominance e. Humans may have “cheater detectors”.An example of this would be a visual cliff: infants won’t crawl off a cliff even if their mothers are encouraging them to. Adaptive mechanisms enhance our chance of survival f. Culture provides adaptive solutions. Cultural evolution has been much faster than biological evolution because we need to work together to resolve problems. People from different cultures often possess different minds because of cultural influences 6. Psychological science crosses levels of analysis a. Four levels: biological, individual, social, and cultural b. Biological: the physical body and how it contributes to mind and body c. Individual: differences in personality. The mental processes that affect how people perceive the world d. Social: how people interact in groups e. Cultural: different cultures shape the populations in them 7. We are often unaware of multiple influences on our psychology a. People are influenced by subtle factors in their environments b. Some factors influence on an unconscious level W.E.I.R.D. science Most studies use: Western, Educated, Industrial, Rich, Democratic people. Cultural psychology is a subfield that attempts to determine the influence of culture on our thoughts and actions. Even in non-Western societies where psychology research is being done you still see a very similar pattern of educated, rich, and democratic people used for research. Short History of Psychology: 1. William Wundt: developed the method of introspection, which is a systematic examination of subjective mental experiences that requires people to inspect and report on the content of their thoughts. 2. Edward Titchener: first proponent of structuralism, which is based on the idea that conscious experience can be broken down into components 3. Functionalism: William James, critic of structuralism. Coined the term “stream of consciousness”, which is an ever-changing and continuous series of thoughts. Proposed functionalism, which argues that the functions of the mind rather than its elements should be focused on. 4. Gestalt Theory: emphasizes patterns and context in learning. Opposed to structuralism, looked at personal experience as more than just the sum of its parts. Means perception of objects is subjective and dependent on context 5. Sigmund Freud: goal was to treat people with psychological distress.Argued that much of human behavior is determined by mental processes that are unconscious. Pioneered a case study approach. 6. Most behavior can be modified by reward and punishment: John Watson. Behaviorism is an approach that emphasizes the environmental effects on behavior. Challenged the focus of psychology on conscious and unconscious mental processes


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