World History 1020, Week One Notes
World History 1020, Week One Notes HIST 1020 - 004
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Liv Taylor on Sunday January 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 - 004 at Auburn University taught by David C. Carter in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 928 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 01/10/16
January 15-‐21, 2016 Dr. David Carter World History 1020 -‐ 004 Revolutionary Age (Worlds Together, Worlds Apart p. 530-‐537) I. The Shot Heard ‘Round The World is an event taking place at Lexington and Concord that embodies the idea that all revolutions from America to France to Haiti to Russia are all connected by the desire for liberty and it only took one shot to kickstart the whole entire thing a. England’s Glorious Revolution of 1688 reinforces the fact that England is no stranger to revolution II. New Colonial System (1763-‐1775) a. Conditions favoring revolution in the American colonies b. The Sugar Act of 1764 and The Stamp Act of 1765 were taxes imposed on the colonists to help Great Britain get out of the debt they put themselves in during the Seven Years’ War which thereby outraged the colonists -‐ As Americans we view ourselves as “exceptional” – meaning “different” or “set apart” but also meaning “BETTER” -‐ Likewise, when we think of the American Revolution, we think of success and bravery and pride, but when we think of revolutions such as Russia’s or the French, we think of failure and violence -‐ The key quote to remember when discussing history (especially revolutions) is AJP Taylor’s, “Nothing is inevitable until it happens,” meaning, we need to remove the idea that there HAS to be revolutions; that certain things HAVE to happen, because they can always be prevented -‐ There’s irony in America because we end up being ambivalent to all other revolution even though we were born from it -‐ When our revolution settles, the French starts, reinforcing the idea of the interconnection of revolutions -‐ Politics, economics (money), and injustice are all things that bring about revolution, but revolutions usually take place during a time when things were really bad and they’re starting to get better, this is called a Revolution of Rising Expectations -‐ The Seven Years’ War between Great Britain and France strongly indebted Great Britain despite their victory, because of this, they attempt to get the money from the colonies and thereby impose taxes such as the Sugar Act of 1764 and the Stamp Act of 1765. -‐ Not only has Great Britain struggled externally with wars but also internally, not just with revolution, but also with their basic concept of what it meant to have rights -‐ Since Americans still considered themselves Englishmen at this time, they had an extremely limited tradition of self-‐government and the idea wasn’t exactly popular. But as the taxes get worse, they begin to challenge the central idea of monarchies. Great Britain states that they have the best interest for the colonies in mind but the colonists don’t buy it. III. Ideological Influences on the Struggle for American Independence and the Constitution a. Thomas Paine’s “Common Sense” b. John Locke’s “Second Treatise on Government” c. Montesquieu’s concept of the separation of powers -‐ All of these men were Enlightenment thinkers -‐ “Common Sense” attacks the idea of hereditary monarchy and declares that an honest man is worth more than all of the monarchy (crowned ruffians). Paine gives a sense that the monarchy is in so many words, a tyranny -‐ He also said that there was no room for gray area, which you were either with the monarchy or against freedom, and to him – it was common sense to pick liberty and freedom -‐ John Locke was a heavy influence on Jefferson -‐ He takes the rights of Englishmen and says that they should be universal because all human beings have Natural Rights and one of those rights in self-‐government -‐ We forget just how radical these concepts were at the time -‐ Montesquieu talks about how systems of government are socially and culturally constructed and that they’re not going to be there forever, so he dares to ask “what comes next?” He concludes that too much power leads to disaster and thereby suggests the idea of the separation of powers IV. A World War for American Independence a. The Declaration of Independence b. French, Spanish and Dutch join America In declaring and waging war against the British c. Role of Washington and others -‐ Independence wasn’t just a movement on July 4, 1776, it wasn’t always popular and it often came in fits -‐ Richard Henry Lee was the first man to suggest this idea that we needed a statement of independence but he needed a committee, thus the Committee of Five was born and Jefferson takes control -‐ A slaveowner (Jefferson) ironically uses the metaphor of slavery to set us up against British tyranny -‐ The dust doesn’t settle until 1783, which leads France almost immediately into their revolution -‐ Our allies were critical, especially France, and not just because they gave us the most resources, but also because we had a treaty with them, and because of this, it meant that they recognized us as a true nation V. From Colonies in Revolt to “United States” -‐ It took 13 years for America to really find her footing, meaning, the change didn’t happen overnight -‐ There was trial and error with systems of government and tensions were high as people began to question if they could govern their own country apart from Great Britain VI. How Revolutionary was the American Revolution? -‐ Even though the American Revolution completely altered history, its effects were still exclusive to white men. Women, African Americans, and Native Americans struggled for their rights long after our emancipation from Great Britain -‐ The American Revolution didn’t exactly address class relations or property, so when the French Revolution came, they had to figure that out on their own -‐ America’s steps towards liberty influenced many countries such as France, Ireland, England, the Netherlands, Haiti, and still influences places like Viet Nam and China in the more modern era The French Revolution (WTWA p. 537-‐539) I. The Legacy of the American Revolution -‐ Today we feel extremely prideful of the revolution but in it’s day it was like the unleashing of a new virus that couldn’t be controlled. We often gloss over the ugliness of the time period after the war – with the trials and errors of forming a new government. The Articles of Confederation were way too weak to sustain a country because they feared if they had a strong government there would be tyrannical fear. But finally the Constitution was ratified in 1789, ironically, the same year that the French Revolution began. II. Louis XVI and the Financial Crisis of the 1780s a. Debts from support of the American Revolution b. Interest payments c. Options 1. Savings 2. Taxes 3. Call Estates General (French parliament) for the first time since 1614 d. Solution? Tax nobility and clergy -‐ The Reign of Terror began and the French turned against each other. -‐ Stability can be deceptive as France plunges into one of its deepest financial crises. -‐ While Louis the XIV was the depiction of an absolute monarch and sovereign power, Louis XVI is much weaker. -‐ France was so indebted that they had to pay 40% based on interest alone. So what were there options? -‐ If they declared bankruptcy they would lose their standing with other nations and therefore their power in the world would plunge drastically -‐ They tried saving (aka cutting down Marie Antoinette’s lavish lifestyle) but they realized it was only going to help 6% so they scrapped that plan -‐ So the last option was heavy taxation and that’s why the Estates General was called into session which in hindsight, was one of the worst things that could happen to the royalty and nobility of France -‐ The First Estate was made up of the clergy (men who pray), which was only 1% of the population yet owned 12% of the land. They did not pay taxes but they did collect money -‐ The Second Estate was made up of the nobility (men who fight), which was only 3% of the population and they were even wealthier than the clergy -‐ The Third Estate was the rest of the 96% of the population. This Estate was mainly peasants and if you weren’t a peasant, you were merchants, petty officers, financiers or workers nicknamed “sans-‐culottes” meaning “without breeches” because they lacked the proper dress of that time. This Estate as a whole was known as the bourgeoisie. This class of people struggled greatly with poverty because they lacked insurance on anything. For example, if the land flooded or went into a drought, they had to deal with whatever came to them and it often times resulted in the destruction of their farms or homes and eventually to death. Child mortality was at half before they reached the age of seven -‐ Since the First and Second Estate always silenced the Third Estate the Third Estate would become rowdy during session and they were kicked out of the assembly so they resulted to meet in an indoor tennis court where they eventually became the National Assembly. This became known as the Tennis Court Oath where the idea of the French Revolution was born from their phrase “We are France”. III. Economic Crisis a. Food shortage b. Grande Peur meaning Great Fear was a time of revolutionary unrest The storming of the Bastille on July 14, 1789 marks France’s independence day as well as symbolizes the fall of the old regime of France IV. The Revolution of 1789 a. From Estates General to the National Assembly -‐ Although America kick started this idea of revolution they didn’t have to address things such as the class system, slavery, or property like the French did b. Popular Revolution and seizure of the Bastille (discussed above) c. National Assembly actions: -‐ Marquis de Lafayette was the author of The Declaration of the Rights of Man emphasizing and mirroring America’s idea that all men are equal before the law -‐ The French also emphasized liberty, equality, and fraternity (brotherhood) -‐ Social upheaval with the rise of “sans-‐culottes” and rural peasants -‐ Civil Constitution of the Clergy -‐ There was no separation of church and state in France like in America so when the state nationalizes all church land their power is significantly undermined. In 1790 the clergy swears an oath to the civil constitution that the church is to be not separate, but subservient to the state. Half of the clergy refuse to take the oath resulting in one of the most violent times of the French Revolution V. Political Revolution and Radicalization -‐ Louis XVI attempts to escape to Varennes but ultimately falls victim of regicide as he is executed in January 1793 and Marie Antoinette 10 months later in October 1793 Book Notes In the 18 century economic systems were booming but due to restrictive mercantilism most of the normal class people didn’t benefit from this newfound wealth Popular Sovereignty – the idea that political power depends on the people and this thereby began political movements that emphasized nationalism Economists argued that unregulated economies would produce faster economic growth and thus the free trade or laissez-‐faire system of governing was founded Ironically the people pushing for liberty still owned slaves, emphasizing the restrictions of the revolution on ethnic minorities and on women The Boston Massacre was where the first colonist was actually killed by a British soldier, essentially being “the straw that broke the camel’s back” Locke said that governments should be based on a social contract that binds both ruler and people Gabriel Prosser attempted a multi-‐racial republic but failed Louis XVI opened the door to his own revolution due to his support of the colonists in order to get back at Great Britain for the Seven Years’ War The Terror was the time where the normal people of France turned against the nobility and in return the nobility executed thousands upon thousands of peasants, overseen mostly by lawyer, Maximilien Robespierre. Robespierre, along with many members of the nobility, eventually went to the guillotine themselves at the hands of the people Napoleon Bonaparte set out for social reform and security of the people and attempted to bring France out of her political turmoil
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