World History 1020, Week Two Notes
World History 1020, Week Two Notes HIST 1020 - 004
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Liv Taylor on Sunday January 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 - 004 at Auburn University taught by David C. Carter in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 313 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 01/10/16
January 25-‐29, 2016 (Week Two) Dr. David Carter World History II V. Political Revolution and Radicalization a. A royal family’s abortive flight to Varennes b. Regicide: Louis XVI & Marie Antoinette -‐ Louis XVI attempts to escape to Varennes but ultimately falls victim of regicide as he is executed in January 1793 and Marie Antoinette 10 months later in October 1793 -‐ These executions were before The Terror but led into what would be one of the most violent years in World History -‐ The question of “could liberty and monarchy coexist?” was raised and since Revolutions often end in the killing of the monarchy c. The rise of the Jacobins and its factors 1. Girondins 2. Montagnards -‐ Literally meaning “mountain men” because of their superior seating in the National Assembly (refer to week one notes) -‐ Run by Maximilien Robespierre d. The Guillotine and the birth of Republic -‐ Even though these two parties differed in many ways, what glues social movements together more than the number of members or leaders is a common enemy and these parties shared that: the monarchy -‐ The concept of oppositional consciousness is that people may not agree on how to do reach an outcome but they do agree on what the outcome should be, the French people being a perfect example of this -‐ During this time the concept of “advancement by merit” was born and guilds were done away with in attempts to create a truly equal society -‐ But of course, after the enemy is defeated, these political parties often turn on each other and thus comes The Terror e. The Terror (1793-‐1794) 1. Law of Suspects -‐ The Law of Suspects was a law very similar to Orwell’s “thought crime” -‐ It was the responsibility of every Frenchman to report any suspicious activity, which often times turned family, friends, and neighbors against each other 2. Committee of Public Safety -‐ Every case was brought before the Committee of Public Safety and you were granted either innocence or death 3. Robespierre executed (summer 1794) 4. Levée en masse and the defense of Revolutionary France -‐ Levée en masse literally means “mass uprising” and was the term used for the military conscription of the day, which pushed the men to fight for France as a nation rather than a king or monarchy (birth of nationalism and patriotism) -‐ The informal “you” was permanently substituted and they quit wearing wigs and breeches in attempts to form an egalitarian society -‐ They also turned against the church, which further alienated the French citizens, in turn causing hostility and people turning on each other politically thus leading to events like the execution of Robespierre and thousands of others -‐ Internal and external trials -‐ Church land became national property and in 1790 the clergy are forced to sign an oath to the civil constitution saying that they are subservient to the state -‐ Half of the clergy refuse to take the oath and this leads to one of the most violent times in history VI. Thermidorean Reaction and the rise of the Directory -‐ After the Terror, the Thermidorean Reaction was adopted by the French who said that enough was enough and that there was to be no more dead bodies -‐ After the execution of Louis XVI, the Directory (5 Directors) took control of the state and for the time being there was relative political stability Napoleon and Europe (WTWA, 539-‐541) I. Background and rise to prominence of the “Corsican Top” -‐ Napoleon Bonaparte was born in 1769 into a poor family and became a lieutenant by the age of 16 and a general by the age of 25 by the “advancement by merit” established during the French Revolution -‐ The image of a “Corsican Top” was coined because it seemed as though Napoleon was an unpredictable spinning top that often times brought chaos II. The Consulate (1799-‐1804) a. Rapprochement with the Pope with the signing of the Concordat of 1801 -‐ Napoleon and the Pope have a rough relationship full of “loves” and “hates”. Napoleon even has the Pope arrested at one point, but peace is made with the Concordat of 1801 which says that there was peace between the revolutionaries and the Catholic Church and restores the church’s civil status b. Declares himself “First Consul for Life” in 1802 -‐ Following his not so successful conquest in Egypt, Napoleon still convinced the people that he was an exceptional leader leading the French people to fall in love with him as he pronounces himself a “liberator” and later “First Consul for Life” which implies a sort of recovery of the monarchy -‐ There were often Napoleonic armies wreaking havoc like revolutionary flashbacks even though Napoleon himself did not encourage such violent actions -‐ Napoleon says “The revolution is over…I am the revolution” which should bring even more concern, but the French people are blinded by their affection for him III. The Pope crowns Napoleon Emperor in 1804 -‐ Napoleon physically crowns himself Emperor as he dazzles and astonishes the French people -‐ This solidifies Napoleon’s peace between the state and the church IV. The Continental System -‐ In 1806 the French blockade Great Britain in attempts to cut off their imports and exports, but Great Britain, famous for their navy, give it right back as a “continental blockade” in efforts to quarantine France which causes tensions to be heightened even more V. “Peace” at home a. Civil Code (Napoleonic Code) b. Bureaucracy -‐ Napoleon’s rise to power was impossible without the Revolution but returns France to a pre-‐Revolutionary way of governing -‐ Napoleon had a sort of “moral compass of ambition” meaning he did what was necessary to succeed politically due to his growing hunger for power -‐ Napoleonic period is classified as a big mess with Allies and political standings which is why the restoration of European order is so prevalent after this era -‐ There were two assassination attempts on Napoleon and one kidnapping attempt even though he was the only leader who really brought order to France -‐ He brings order to France by the Civil Code and his transformation of France’s infrastructure VI. The Russian invasion -‐ Napoleon decides to invade Russia because they broke their treaty by trading with Great Britain -‐ Napoleon gathers 640,000 men to Russia, which is likely the largest army ever assembled -‐ He led the invasion starting in the summer but the Russian’s strategy of retreat kept the French in Russia until winter, which thereby diminished most of his army -‐ The Russians also enacted a “scorched earth” policy against their homeland so Napoleon’s army wouldn’t only freeze to death, but also starve and have no shelter -‐ There were 500,000 casualties and 300,000 deaths VII. Exile -‐ After his gigantic failure in Russia, Napoleon is exiled to the Isle of Elba in 1814 -‐ He was returned to France for 100 days where the battle of Waterloo took place, and after Napoleon’s defeat, he was exiled again to St. Helena in 1815 where he died 6 years later in 1821 Haitian Revolution (WTWA, 541) -‐ During the Atlantic Slave Trade, only 6% of slaves went to North America, the majority went to South America and the Caribbean Islands (Central America) -‐ In 1789, the same year as the Storming of the Bastille, the men of Saint Domingue claim citizen rights -‐ Central and South America were split drastically into 108 castes of mixed races -‐ Only 9% were poor, white Europeans (like planters and workers) -‐ 6% were free people of mixed ancestry -‐ 85% were African slaves -‐ If you had even “one drop” of colored blood in you, you were considered inferior, and no matter how poor you were, if you were white, that held social and political relevance and power -‐ Sugar production from plantations caused many deaths and illnesses of slaves and workers in the Caribbean -‐ Toussaint L’Ourverture, born a slave, became one of the most influential revolutionary leaders, as he formed interracial and interclass coalitions for freedom and citizenship -‐ We should not generalize slaves as being “African” because that implies that they have no other identification (countries, tribes) and all share the same experiences and culture -‐ The idea of liberty and equality is subjective -‐ White elites found that to be liberated meant that it was their right to own slaves while slaves viewed liberty as the abolition of slavery causing extreme tension between races and all of their different views on liberty (chart in Carter’s PPT) -‐ For a time being, the National Assembly does abolish slavery, but regressing as usual, Napoleon restores it causing it to still be a global issue -‐ The irony of Toussaint L’Ourverture was that he earned his emancipation and goes on to buy plantations and enslaved people to work them Book Notes -‐ Napoleon extended his empire from the Iberian Peninsula to the Austrian and Prussian borders -‐ After his failed attack on Russia, all of Europe turned against him causing his exile and eventually, his death -‐ France also saw colonies break away in this age of revolution, notably Saint-‐ Domingue, whose revolution was caused this time by slaves -‐ The slaves outnumbered the free settlers 500,000 to 70,000 -‐ The revolution in France unleashed conflict in Saint-‐Domingue where racial tensions were already high -‐ White settlers sought self-‐government while slaves sought freedom -‐ Civil war erupted between the slaves and Frenchmen who arrived to restore order -‐ In turn, the National Assembly abolished slavery in 1793 -‐ The slaves were eventually liberated and took control of the island
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