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World History 1020, Week Two Notes

by: Liv Taylor

World History 1020, Week Two Notes HIST 1020 - 004

Marketplace > Auburn University > History > HIST 1020 - 004 > World History 1020 Week Two Notes
Liv Taylor
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About this Document

These notes cover the rest of the French Revolution, the Napoleonic age, and the beginning of the Haitian Revolution.
World History II
David C. Carter
Class Notes
World History, french revolution, Napoleonic Age, Napoleon Bonaparte, Haitian Revolution
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Liv Taylor on Sunday January 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 - 004 at Auburn University taught by David C. Carter in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 313 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 01/10/16
January  25-­‐29,  2016  (Week  Two)   Dr.  David  Carter   World  History  II       V. Political  Revolution  and  Radicalization       a. A  royal  family’s  abortive  flight  to  Varennes   b. Regicide:  Louis  XVI  &  Marie  Antoinette     -­‐  Louis  XVI  attempts  to  escape  to  Varennes  but  ultimately  falls  victim  of  regicide  as   he  is  executed  in  January  1793  and  Marie  Antoinette  10  months  later  in  October   1793     -­‐  These  executions  were  before  The  Terror  but  led  into  what  would  be  one  of  the   most  violent  years  in  World  History   -­‐  The  question  of  “could  liberty  and  monarchy  coexist?”  was  raised  and  since   Revolutions  often  end  in  the  killing  of  the  monarchy   c. The  rise  of  the  Jacobins  and  its  factors   1. Girondins   2. Montagnards   -­‐  Literally  meaning  “mountain  men”  because  of  their  superior  seating   in  the  National  Assembly  (refer  to  week  one  notes)   -­‐  Run  by  Maximilien  Robespierre                d.        The  Guillotine  and  the  birth  of  Republic   -­‐  Even  though  these  two  parties  differed  in  many  ways,  what  glues  social   movements  together  more  than  the  number  of  members  or  leaders  is  a  common   enemy  and  these  parties  shared  that:  the  monarchy   -­‐  The  concept  of  oppositional  consciousness  is  that  people  may  not  agree  on  how  to   do  reach  an  outcome  but  they  do  agree  on  what  the  outcome  should  be,  the  French   people  being  a  perfect  example  of  this   -­‐  During  this  time  the  concept  of  “advancement  by  merit”  was  born  and  guilds  were   done  away  with  in  attempts  to  create  a  truly  equal  society   -­‐  But  of  course,  after  the  enemy  is  defeated,  these  political  parties  often  turn  on  each   other  and  thus  comes  The  Terror   e. The  Terror  (1793-­‐1794)   1. Law  of  Suspects     -­‐  The  Law  of  Suspects  was  a  law  very  similar  to  Orwell’s  “thought  crime”   -­‐  It  was  the  responsibility  of  every  Frenchman  to  report  any  suspicious  activity,   which  often  times  turned  family,  friends,  and  neighbors  against  each  other   2. Committee  of  Public  Safety   -­‐  Every  case  was  brought  before  the  Committee  of  Public  Safety  and  you  were   granted  either  innocence  or  death   3. Robespierre  executed  (summer  1794)   4. Levée  en  masse  and  the  defense  of  Revolutionary  France   -­‐  Levée  en  masse  literally  means  “mass  uprising”  and  was  the  term  used  for  the   military  conscription  of  the  day,  which  pushed  the  men  to  fight  for  France  as  a   nation  rather  than  a  king  or  monarchy  (birth  of  nationalism  and  patriotism)   -­‐  The  informal  “you”  was  permanently  substituted  and  they  quit  wearing  wigs  and   breeches  in  attempts  to  form  an  egalitarian  society   -­‐  They  also  turned  against  the  church,  which  further  alienated  the  French  citizens,  in   turn  causing  hostility  and  people  turning  on  each  other  politically  thus  leading  to   events  like  the  execution  of  Robespierre  and  thousands  of  others   -­‐  Internal  and  external  trials   -­‐  Church  land  became  national  property  and  in  1790  the  clergy  are  forced  to  sign  an   oath  to  the  civil  constitution  saying  that  they  are  subservient  to  the  state   -­‐  Half  of  the  clergy  refuse  to  take  the  oath  and  this  leads  to  one  of  the  most  violent   times  in  history     VI. Thermidorean  Reaction  and  the  rise  of  the  Directory   -­‐  After  the  Terror,  the  Thermidorean  Reaction  was  adopted  by  the  French  who  said   that  enough  was  enough  and  that  there  was  to  be  no  more  dead  bodies   -­‐  After  the  execution  of  Louis  XVI,  the  Directory  (5  Directors)  took  control  of  the   state  and  for  the  time  being  there  was  relative  political  stability       Napoleon  and  Europe  (WTWA,  539-­‐541)     I. Background  and  rise  to  prominence  of  the  “Corsican  Top”   -­‐  Napoleon  Bonaparte  was  born  in  1769  into  a  poor  family  and  became  a  lieutenant   by  the  age  of  16  and  a  general  by  the  age  of  25  by  the  “advancement  by  merit”   established  during  the  French  Revolution   -­‐  The  image  of  a  “Corsican  Top”  was  coined  because  it  seemed  as  though  Napoleon   was  an  unpredictable  spinning  top  that  often  times  brought  chaos       II. The  Consulate  (1799-­‐1804)   a. Rapprochement  with  the  Pope  with  the  signing  of  the  Concordat  of   1801   -­‐  Napoleon  and  the  Pope  have  a  rough  relationship  full  of  “loves”  and  “hates”.   Napoleon  even  has  the  Pope  arrested  at  one  point,  but  peace  is  made  with  the   Concordat  of  1801  which  says  that  there  was  peace  between  the  revolutionaries  and   the  Catholic  Church  and  restores  the  church’s  civil  status   b. Declares  himself  “First  Consul  for  Life”  in  1802   -­‐  Following  his  not  so  successful  conquest  in  Egypt,  Napoleon  still  convinced  the   people  that  he  was  an  exceptional  leader  leading  the  French  people  to  fall  in  love   with  him  as  he  pronounces  himself  a  “liberator”  and  later  “First  Consul  for  Life”   which  implies  a  sort  of  recovery  of  the  monarchy   -­‐    There  were  often  Napoleonic  armies  wreaking  havoc  like  revolutionary  flashbacks   even  though  Napoleon  himself  did  not  encourage  such  violent  actions   -­‐  Napoleon  says  “The  revolution  is  over…I  am  the  revolution”  which  should  bring   even  more  concern,  but  the  French  people  are  blinded  by  their  affection  for  him     III. The  Pope  crowns  Napoleon  Emperor  in  1804   -­‐  Napoleon  physically  crowns  himself  Emperor  as  he  dazzles  and  astonishes  the   French  people     -­‐  This  solidifies  Napoleon’s  peace  between  the  state  and  the  church     IV. The  Continental  System   -­‐  In  1806  the  French  blockade  Great  Britain  in  attempts  to  cut  off  their  imports  and   exports,  but  Great  Britain,  famous  for  their  navy,  give  it  right  back  as  a  “continental   blockade”  in  efforts  to  quarantine  France  which  causes  tensions  to  be  heightened   even  more     V. “Peace”  at  home   a. Civil  Code  (Napoleonic  Code)   b. Bureaucracy   -­‐  Napoleon’s  rise  to  power  was  impossible  without  the  Revolution  but  returns   France  to  a  pre-­‐Revolutionary  way  of  governing   -­‐  Napoleon  had  a  sort  of  “moral  compass  of  ambition”  meaning  he  did  what  was   necessary  to  succeed  politically  due  to  his  growing  hunger  for  power   -­‐  Napoleonic  period  is  classified  as  a  big  mess  with  Allies  and  political  standings   which  is  why  the  restoration  of  European  order  is  so  prevalent  after  this  era   -­‐  There  were  two  assassination  attempts  on  Napoleon  and  one  kidnapping  attempt   even  though  he  was  the  only  leader  who  really  brought  order  to  France   -­‐  He  brings  order  to  France  by  the  Civil  Code  and  his  transformation  of  France’s   infrastructure     VI. The  Russian  invasion   -­‐  Napoleon  decides  to  invade  Russia  because  they  broke  their  treaty  by  trading  with   Great  Britain     -­‐  Napoleon  gathers  640,000  men  to  Russia,  which  is  likely  the  largest  army  ever   assembled   -­‐  He  led  the  invasion  starting  in  the  summer  but  the  Russian’s  strategy  of  retreat   kept  the  French  in  Russia  until  winter,  which  thereby  diminished  most  of  his  army   -­‐  The  Russians  also  enacted  a  “scorched  earth”  policy  against  their  homeland  so   Napoleon’s  army  wouldn’t  only  freeze  to  death,  but  also  starve  and  have  no  shelter   -­‐  There  were  500,000  casualties  and  300,000  deaths       VII. Exile   -­‐  After  his  gigantic  failure  in  Russia,  Napoleon  is  exiled  to  the  Isle  of  Elba  in  1814   -­‐  He  was  returned  to  France  for  100  days  where  the  battle  of  Waterloo  took  place,   and  after  Napoleon’s  defeat,  he  was  exiled  again  to  St.  Helena  in  1815  where  he  died   6  years  later  in  1821     Haitian  Revolution  (WTWA,  541)     -­‐  During  the  Atlantic  Slave  Trade,  only  6%  of  slaves  went  to  North  America,  the   majority  went  to  South  America  and  the  Caribbean  Islands  (Central  America)   -­‐  In  1789,  the  same  year  as  the  Storming  of  the  Bastille,  the  men  of  Saint  Domingue   claim  citizen  rights   -­‐  Central  and  South  America  were  split  drastically  into  108  castes  of  mixed  races   -­‐  Only  9%  were  poor,  white  Europeans  (like  planters  and  workers)   -­‐  6%  were  free  people  of  mixed  ancestry   -­‐  85%  were  African  slaves   -­‐  If  you  had  even  “one  drop”  of  colored  blood  in  you,  you  were  considered  inferior,   and  no  matter  how  poor  you  were,  if  you  were  white,  that  held  social  and  political   relevance  and  power   -­‐  Sugar  production  from  plantations  caused  many  deaths  and  illnesses  of  slaves  and   workers  in  the  Caribbean   -­‐  Toussaint  L’Ourverture,  born  a  slave,  became  one  of  the  most  influential   revolutionary  leaders,  as  he  formed  interracial  and  interclass  coalitions  for  freedom   and  citizenship   -­‐    We  should  not  generalize  slaves  as  being  “African”  because  that  implies  that  they   have  no  other  identification  (countries,  tribes)  and  all  share  the  same  experiences   and  culture   -­‐  The  idea  of  liberty  and  equality  is  subjective   -­‐  White  elites  found  that  to  be  liberated  meant  that  it  was  their  right  to  own  slaves   while  slaves  viewed  liberty  as  the  abolition  of  slavery  causing  extreme  tension   between  races  and  all  of  their  different  views  on  liberty  (chart  in  Carter’s  PPT)   -­‐  For  a  time  being,  the  National  Assembly  does  abolish  slavery,  but  regressing  as   usual,  Napoleon  restores  it  causing  it  to  still  be  a  global  issue   -­‐  The  irony  of  Toussaint  L’Ourverture  was  that  he  earned  his  emancipation  and  goes   on  to  buy  plantations  and  enslaved  people  to  work  them         Book  Notes     -­‐  Napoleon  extended  his  empire  from  the  Iberian  Peninsula  to  the  Austrian  and   Prussian  borders   -­‐  After  his  failed  attack  on  Russia,  all  of  Europe  turned  against  him  causing  his  exile   and  eventually,  his  death   -­‐  France  also  saw  colonies  break  away  in  this  age  of  revolution,  notably  Saint-­‐ Domingue,  whose  revolution  was  caused  this  time  by  slaves   -­‐  The  slaves  outnumbered  the  free  settlers  500,000  to  70,000     -­‐  The  revolution  in  France  unleashed  conflict  in  Saint-­‐Domingue  where  racial   tensions  were  already  high   -­‐  White  settlers  sought  self-­‐government  while  slaves  sought  freedom   -­‐  Civil  war  erupted  between  the  slaves  and  Frenchmen  who  arrived  to  restore  order   -­‐  In  turn,  the  National  Assembly  abolished  slavery  in  1793   -­‐  The  slaves  were  eventually  liberated  and  took  control  of  the  island  


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