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World History 1020, Week Three Notes

by: Liv Taylor

World History 1020, Week Three Notes HIST 1020 - 004

Marketplace > Auburn University > History > HIST 1020 - 004 > World History 1020 Week Three Notes
Liv Taylor
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About this Document

These are over the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain and throughout the rest of Europe. It also covers political reorderings in Latin America.
World History II
David C. Carter
Class Notes
World History, industrial revolution, Great Britain, france, Germany, Iberian America
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Liv Taylor on Sunday January 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 - 004 at Auburn University taught by David C. Carter in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 166 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 01/10/16
February  1-­‐5,  2016  (Week  Three)   Dr.  David  Carter   World  History  II       The  Industrial  Revolution  in  Great  Britain  (WTWA  546-­‐553)     I. Introduction,  The  Continuing  Legacy  of  the  Industrial  Revolution   -­‐  The  Industrial  Revolution  led  to  the  birth  of  factories  and  economic  ideologies  such   as  capitalism,  communism,  socialism,  Marxism,  and  anarchism       II. Origin  of  Industrialization  in  the  British  Traditional  Economy   -­‐    The  steam  engine  was  the  trademark  mechanical  invention  while  the  cotton  gin   was  the  trademark  textile  invention,  which  were  the  top  industries  that  led  the   Revolution   -­‐  Energy  production  increased  by  new  implications  of  people,  livestock  and  water   -­‐  Also  led  to  automation  which  is  the  act  of  machines  replacing  people  in  the   workplace     a. Rural  manufacturing  and  the  role  of  the  entrepreneur,  from  the  “cottage   industry”  to  the  “putting-­‐out  system”  in  mid  1750s   -­‐  Cottage  industry  was  the  rural  attempt  of  putting  food  on  the  table   -­‐  It  was  a  substitute  for  the  inconsistent  and  laborious  task  of  farming.  In  other   words,  the  variability  was  taken  out  of  farming  by  families  starting  to  spin  and   weave  textiles  out  of  their  homes   -­‐  This  led  to  the  thought  process  that  it  was  more  beneficial  to  have  more  children   so  they  could  be  reared  as  workers   -­‐  The  gender  division  of  labor  was  also  enforced  at  this  time;  the  identification   between  what  a  “woman’s  job”  was  and  what  a  “man’s  job”  was   -­‐  The  risk  and  labor  was  primarily  taken  on  by  families  instead  of  the  producers  of   the  raw  materials  or  the  merchants  being  sold  to   -­‐  There  was  little  to  no  machines  used  in  the  cottage  industry     -­‐  Because  of  the  want  and  need  for  children  to  be  workers,  people  started  getting   married  earlier  and  having  larger  families  which  thereby  fueled  overpopulation       b. The  Agricultural  Revolution     -­‐  Instead  of  farming  to  produce  food  for  ones  family,  commercial  agriculture  took   the  reins     -­‐  This  is  why  certain  areas  and  states  have  monocrop  focuses  instead  of  a  variety  of   foods  a  family  would  need  to  survive  (Georgia  peaches,  Nebraska  corn,  etc.)     III. Why  Britain  First?  Regional  Variation  in  Britain   a. Population  explosion  across  Europe  and  Britain   -­‐  People  began  to  overpopulate  both  cities  and  rural  areas  because  of  the  need  for   more  children  as  workers     b. Natural  resources  and  geography   -­‐  See  pictures  on  Carter’s  PowerPoint  “Industrial  Revolution  in  Great  Britain”     c. Coal  =  black  gold  of  the  industrial  revolution   -­‐  Coal  was  so  important  during  the  Revolution  because  it  was  a  resource  of  both   heat  and  steam  (pressure  to  make  machines  work)     d. Technological  breakthroughs   1. Newcomen’s  engine   -­‐  Steam  engine  (atmospheric  engine)  changed  the  way  the  world  worked,   also  imperfect   2. James  Watts’  steam  engine   -­‐  Watt  improves  on  the  steam  engine     3. The  textile  revolution:  James  Hargreaves’  “spinning  jenny”  crowns  King   Cotton   4. Richard  Arkwright’s  water  frame     -­‐  Energy  and  transportation  drastically  changed  by  water   5. Samuel  Crompton  and  mule  spinning   6. The  birth  of  the  modern  railroad   -­‐  Richard  Trevithick’s  steam  locomotive     e. Josiah  Wedgewood   -­‐  Case  study  of  an  industrialist,  famous  for  ceramics  and  pottery,  which  Great  Britain   wasn’t  known  for  at  this  time   -­‐  Born  in  1730  so  he  was  raised  in  the  Industrial  Revolution   -­‐  Put  workers  into  specific  tasks  (division  of  production)   -­‐  He  had  a  deformed  leg  so  he  couldn’t  spin  the  potter’s  wheel,  but  he  was  obsessed   with  consistency  and  quality  control  therefore  all  of  his  products  were  top  notch   and  looked  the  same     The  Luddites:  a  revolt  against  the  mechanization  of  labor   -­‐  Great  Britain  was  adopting  new  techniques  while  the  rest  of  Europe  was  at  war   (France  &  Napoleon)   -­‐  But  because  of  the  stocking  industry,  new  equipment  was  expensive     -­‐  Weavers  and  other  craftsmen  were  respected  but  not  very  wealthy,  therefore  they   couldn’t  afford  this  equipment,  only  factory  mangers  could   -­‐  The  Luddites  would  burn  and  break  these  machines   -­‐  The  Luddites  came  from  the  story  of  Ned  Ludd  (whether  it  was  a  myth  or  true  is   still  unknown)   -­‐  Ned  Ludd  was  a  feebleminded  man  who  worked  in  Nottingham  and  would  often   break  a  couple  machines,  but  they’d  write  it  off  because  it  was  expected  of  him   -­‐  Therefore  when  Luddites  went  to  destroy  machines,  they’d  say  they  had  to  see  Ned   Ludd     -­‐  A  sort  of  “secret  army”  who  operated  the  best  at  night   -­‐  They’re  not  a  violent  “army”  because  they  aren’t  killing  people   -­‐  But  because  of  the  destruction,  factory  owners  are  getting  more  protective   -­‐  Luddites  attacked  a  mill  without  guns,  but  the  guards  had  guns  and  overpowered   them   -­‐  So  the  Luddites  got  pissed  off  and  burned  down  the  mill  owner’s  house  leading  to  a   section  of  the  British  army  coming  and  killing  some  of  the  Luddites   -­‐  People  were  arrested  and  the  government  hanged  enough  people  to  get  the   message  across     Robert  Owen’s  New  Lanark  Cotton  Mills  in  Scotland   -­‐  Owen  was  an  enlightenment  industrialist   -­‐  He  believed  strongly  in  the  social  gospel  philosophy   -­‐  Thereby,  he  attempts  to  create  model  communities  (utopian  societies)   -­‐  Owenite  communities  respond  to  industrialization  by  trying  to  control  it     -­‐  They  viewed  the  erosion  of  the  family  labor  unit  a  major  problem  because  children   leave  to  go  off  and  work  at  mills     -­‐  And  by  that,  urban  population  explodes  and  the  slums  are  born   -­‐  Intense  urban  poverty     -­‐  Stereotypical  ideas  of  poverty  are  manufactured  (carelessness,  alcoholics,  dirty,   etc.)     Industrialization  of  the  European  Continent  (WTWA  546-­‐553)     I. Industrialization  of  the  European  Continent     a. No  single  model   -­‐  Pace  of  thinking  going  quickly  in  Great  Britain  but  not  throughout  all  of  Europe   -­‐  Industrialization  in  France  doesn’t  really  take  and  it’s  not  as  dramatic     b. No  thunderclap   -­‐  A  thunderclap  is  a  defining  moment  (9/11,  etc.),  but  industrialization  just  slowly   spread  in  no  specific  form  or  fashion     c. Why  reinvent  he  wheel?  European  nations  beneficiaries  of  British  inventions   despite  British  attempt  to  preserve  industrial  monopoly   -­‐  The  government  forbade  Englishmen  to  travel  because  they  didn’t  want  everyone   else  in  Europe  stealing  their  inventions,  but  people  are  bound  to  figure  out  how  to   do  things  on  their  own   -­‐  For  example,  Germany  doesn’t  only  match  Great  Britain’s  steam  engine,  they   surpass  it   -­‐  Great  Britain  accepts  that  industrialization  is  getting  out  and  eventually  tries  to  sell   their  inventions  for  money   d. European  ambivalence  about  costs  of  industrialization.  The  critique  of   Friedrich  Engels  (Marxist)   -­‐  Engels  sees  this  industrialization  and  says  there’s  no  other  resolution  to  this  but   revolution     II. Industrialization  in  France:  Achieving  Industrialization  Without  an   Industrial  Revolution   a. Application  of  new  technology  to  traditional  crafts   b. Emphasis  on  high-­‐quality  goods;  emphasis  on  luxury  items  and  resulting   scarcity  leads  to  high  prices  and  high  profits   c. Slower  population  growth  and  slower  patterns  of  urbanization   d. Regional  segregation  of  French  economy     e. “Late  bloomer”  nation  with  growth  of  railroads  from  mid-­‐19  century  on     III. Industrialization  in  Germany:  From  Segregated  Economies  to  “Made  in   Germany”   a. Overcoming  political  divisions   -­‐  Separate  German  states  have  all  different  currencies  and  cultures  at  this  point   -­‐  There  was  this  idea  of  intense  localism  while  other  states  wanted  in  trade  more   robustly  (Prussia)   -­‐  The  set  up  was  very  much  so  like  Peasant  class  in  the  Middle  Ages  with  serfs  and   lords   a. Overcoming  isolation  of  petty  states   b. Wide  dispersion  of  vital  resources   -­‐  Germany  blessed  with  rich  natural  resources,  waterways,  good  mineral/coal   wealth  but  all  the  separated  states  make  it  inefficient   c. Prussia’s  dilemma/Prussia’s  solution  –  overcoming  geographic  divisions   through  the  creation  of  the  Zollverein  customs  union  (1834)     -­‐  Great  Britain  is  flourishing  while  Germany  is  lagging   -­‐  The  Zollverein  is  a  series  of  alliances  for  commercial  and  economic  use  between   German  states  to  establish  regulation   -­‐  The  Zollverein  is  an  antecedent  for  German  unification  (doesn’t  include  Austria)   -­‐  This  cements  Prussia’s  dominance  and  kickstarts  German  industrialization   -­‐  Germany’s  “thunderclap”  into  the  new  age   d. Early  railroad  boom   -­‐  Very  sophisticated  railroads     e. Growth  of  engineering  tradition  and  reputation  for  manufacturing  excellence   -­‐  Germany  quickly  catches  up  to  Great  Britain  and  The  United  States   -­‐  By  The  Civil  War,  Germany  is  gaining  the  upper  hand,  and  by  WWI  Great  Britain,   The  United  States  and  Germany  are  all  industrial  giants     IV. Industrialization  in  the  rest  of  Europe:  “The  Lands  That  Time  Forgot”   a. Some  specialized  industrialization,  not  entire  nation   b. Ongoing  dominance  of  traditional,  agrarian-­‐based  economy  (economy  based   on  land  cultivation)   c. Sources  of  raw  materials  and  primary  production  for  industrializing   neighbors     Political  reordering  (WTWA  541-­‐545)   Revolutions  in  Iberian  America       Brazil:   -­‐  Brazil’s  fight  for  freedom  avoided  revolution   -­‐  French  troops  invaded  Portugal  and  the  royal  Braganza  family  fled  to  Brazil   -­‐  The  king  was  later  persuaded  to  return  to  Portugal,  but  he  left  his  son,  Pedro,  in   charge   -­‐  The  people’s  pleas  for  independence  and  statehood  resonated  with  Pedro  and  he   crowned  himself  head  of  this  independent  Brazilian  state  by  constitutional   monarchy   -­‐  Pedro  was  supported  by  Brazilian  elites  who  wanted  to  avoid  slave  insurrections   or  regional  insurrections   -­‐  Haiti  sent  shock  waves  across  the  Caribbean  that  slave  uprisings  were  possible   -­‐  But  the  central  government  silenced  any  attempt  at  these  uprisings  and  revolts  by   gauchos  and  urban  slaves   -­‐  By  the  1840s  Brazil  had  achieved  political  stability  and  liberation  without   revolution     Mexico:   -­‐  Mexico  and  other  Latin  American  colonies  gained  autonomy  (separation)  from  the   Spanish  crown  during  the  Napoleonic  Wars   -­‐  When  the  crown  regained  power,  American-­‐born  Spaniards  (Creoles)  and  people   born  in  Spain  (Peninsulares)  fought  over  this  power  because  the  Peninsulares   wanted  their  elite  positions  back  (usually  officers)  and  the  Creoles  weren’t  having  it   -­‐  Peninsulares  used  Enlightenment  ideals  to  back  themselves  up   -­‐  In  Mexico  between  1810-­‐1813,  Father  Hidalgo  and  Morelos  organized  a  revolt  of   peasants,  Indians  and  artisans  calling  for  the  redistribution  of  wealth  and  land   reform   -­‐  The  rebellion  was  finally  overcome   -­‐  But  when  the  Spanish  army  was  unable  to  prevent  anarchy,  the  local  Mexican  army   joined  the  Creoles  in  proclaiming  Mexico’s  independence  in  1821     Other  South  American  Revolutions:   -­‐  Simón  Bolívar  and  San  Martín  led  revolutions  in  the  rest  of  Spain’s  colonies  for   fourteen  years   -­‐  This  mobilized  Indians,  mestizos  (Latin  and  European  mixed),  and  slaves  as  well  as   elites   -­‐  But  when  these  wars  ended,  civil  wars  began  between  different  groups  from  ethnic   to  religious  to  social   -­‐  Therefore,  multiple  states  appeared  rather  than  a  unified  state     -­‐  They  were  usually  controlled  by  social  elites  and  ruled  by  military  chieftains  called   caudillos     Book  Notes:   -­‐  An  Industrious  Revolution  vs.  An  Industrial  Revolution   -­‐  Scholars  call  an  industrious  revolution  when  individual  households  devote  less   time  to  leisure  activities  and  more  time  to  working,  using  the  extra  money  they   make  to  produce  even  more   -­‐  An  industrial  revolution  encompasses  technological  advances  and  inventions   -­‐  The  bourgeoisie  is  the  rising  middle  class  consisting  of  urban  businessmen,   financiers,  and  other  property  owners  without  aristocratic  ties   -­‐  China  didn’t  follow  the  industrial  revolution  because  they  were  way  too  focused  on   land  cultivation  and  agriculture,  which  made  them  vulnerable  to  cheap   manufactured  imports  from  European  traders  backed  by  their  governments   extolling  the  virtues  of  free  trade    


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