World History 1020, Week Three Notes
World History 1020, Week Three Notes HIST 1020 - 004
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Liv Taylor on Sunday January 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 - 004 at Auburn University taught by David C. Carter in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 166 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 01/10/16
February 1-‐5, 2016 (Week Three) Dr. David Carter World History II The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain (WTWA 546-‐553) I. Introduction, The Continuing Legacy of the Industrial Revolution -‐ The Industrial Revolution led to the birth of factories and economic ideologies such as capitalism, communism, socialism, Marxism, and anarchism II. Origin of Industrialization in the British Traditional Economy -‐ The steam engine was the trademark mechanical invention while the cotton gin was the trademark textile invention, which were the top industries that led the Revolution -‐ Energy production increased by new implications of people, livestock and water -‐ Also led to automation which is the act of machines replacing people in the workplace a. Rural manufacturing and the role of the entrepreneur, from the “cottage industry” to the “putting-‐out system” in mid 1750s -‐ Cottage industry was the rural attempt of putting food on the table -‐ It was a substitute for the inconsistent and laborious task of farming. In other words, the variability was taken out of farming by families starting to spin and weave textiles out of their homes -‐ This led to the thought process that it was more beneficial to have more children so they could be reared as workers -‐ The gender division of labor was also enforced at this time; the identification between what a “woman’s job” was and what a “man’s job” was -‐ The risk and labor was primarily taken on by families instead of the producers of the raw materials or the merchants being sold to -‐ There was little to no machines used in the cottage industry -‐ Because of the want and need for children to be workers, people started getting married earlier and having larger families which thereby fueled overpopulation b. The Agricultural Revolution -‐ Instead of farming to produce food for ones family, commercial agriculture took the reins -‐ This is why certain areas and states have monocrop focuses instead of a variety of foods a family would need to survive (Georgia peaches, Nebraska corn, etc.) III. Why Britain First? Regional Variation in Britain a. Population explosion across Europe and Britain -‐ People began to overpopulate both cities and rural areas because of the need for more children as workers b. Natural resources and geography -‐ See pictures on Carter’s PowerPoint “Industrial Revolution in Great Britain” c. Coal = black gold of the industrial revolution -‐ Coal was so important during the Revolution because it was a resource of both heat and steam (pressure to make machines work) d. Technological breakthroughs 1. Newcomen’s engine -‐ Steam engine (atmospheric engine) changed the way the world worked, also imperfect 2. James Watts’ steam engine -‐ Watt improves on the steam engine 3. The textile revolution: James Hargreaves’ “spinning jenny” crowns King Cotton 4. Richard Arkwright’s water frame -‐ Energy and transportation drastically changed by water 5. Samuel Crompton and mule spinning 6. The birth of the modern railroad -‐ Richard Trevithick’s steam locomotive e. Josiah Wedgewood -‐ Case study of an industrialist, famous for ceramics and pottery, which Great Britain wasn’t known for at this time -‐ Born in 1730 so he was raised in the Industrial Revolution -‐ Put workers into specific tasks (division of production) -‐ He had a deformed leg so he couldn’t spin the potter’s wheel, but he was obsessed with consistency and quality control therefore all of his products were top notch and looked the same The Luddites: a revolt against the mechanization of labor -‐ Great Britain was adopting new techniques while the rest of Europe was at war (France & Napoleon) -‐ But because of the stocking industry, new equipment was expensive -‐ Weavers and other craftsmen were respected but not very wealthy, therefore they couldn’t afford this equipment, only factory mangers could -‐ The Luddites would burn and break these machines -‐ The Luddites came from the story of Ned Ludd (whether it was a myth or true is still unknown) -‐ Ned Ludd was a feebleminded man who worked in Nottingham and would often break a couple machines, but they’d write it off because it was expected of him -‐ Therefore when Luddites went to destroy machines, they’d say they had to see Ned Ludd -‐ A sort of “secret army” who operated the best at night -‐ They’re not a violent “army” because they aren’t killing people -‐ But because of the destruction, factory owners are getting more protective -‐ Luddites attacked a mill without guns, but the guards had guns and overpowered them -‐ So the Luddites got pissed off and burned down the mill owner’s house leading to a section of the British army coming and killing some of the Luddites -‐ People were arrested and the government hanged enough people to get the message across Robert Owen’s New Lanark Cotton Mills in Scotland -‐ Owen was an enlightenment industrialist -‐ He believed strongly in the social gospel philosophy -‐ Thereby, he attempts to create model communities (utopian societies) -‐ Owenite communities respond to industrialization by trying to control it -‐ They viewed the erosion of the family labor unit a major problem because children leave to go off and work at mills -‐ And by that, urban population explodes and the slums are born -‐ Intense urban poverty -‐ Stereotypical ideas of poverty are manufactured (carelessness, alcoholics, dirty, etc.) Industrialization of the European Continent (WTWA 546-‐553) I. Industrialization of the European Continent a. No single model -‐ Pace of thinking going quickly in Great Britain but not throughout all of Europe -‐ Industrialization in France doesn’t really take and it’s not as dramatic b. No thunderclap -‐ A thunderclap is a defining moment (9/11, etc.), but industrialization just slowly spread in no specific form or fashion c. Why reinvent he wheel? European nations beneficiaries of British inventions despite British attempt to preserve industrial monopoly -‐ The government forbade Englishmen to travel because they didn’t want everyone else in Europe stealing their inventions, but people are bound to figure out how to do things on their own -‐ For example, Germany doesn’t only match Great Britain’s steam engine, they surpass it -‐ Great Britain accepts that industrialization is getting out and eventually tries to sell their inventions for money d. European ambivalence about costs of industrialization. The critique of Friedrich Engels (Marxist) -‐ Engels sees this industrialization and says there’s no other resolution to this but revolution II. Industrialization in France: Achieving Industrialization Without an Industrial Revolution a. Application of new technology to traditional crafts b. Emphasis on high-‐quality goods; emphasis on luxury items and resulting scarcity leads to high prices and high profits c. Slower population growth and slower patterns of urbanization d. Regional segregation of French economy e. “Late bloomer” nation with growth of railroads from mid-‐19 century on III. Industrialization in Germany: From Segregated Economies to “Made in Germany” a. Overcoming political divisions -‐ Separate German states have all different currencies and cultures at this point -‐ There was this idea of intense localism while other states wanted in trade more robustly (Prussia) -‐ The set up was very much so like Peasant class in the Middle Ages with serfs and lords a. Overcoming isolation of petty states b. Wide dispersion of vital resources -‐ Germany blessed with rich natural resources, waterways, good mineral/coal wealth but all the separated states make it inefficient c. Prussia’s dilemma/Prussia’s solution – overcoming geographic divisions through the creation of the Zollverein customs union (1834) -‐ Great Britain is flourishing while Germany is lagging -‐ The Zollverein is a series of alliances for commercial and economic use between German states to establish regulation -‐ The Zollverein is an antecedent for German unification (doesn’t include Austria) -‐ This cements Prussia’s dominance and kickstarts German industrialization -‐ Germany’s “thunderclap” into the new age d. Early railroad boom -‐ Very sophisticated railroads e. Growth of engineering tradition and reputation for manufacturing excellence -‐ Germany quickly catches up to Great Britain and The United States -‐ By The Civil War, Germany is gaining the upper hand, and by WWI Great Britain, The United States and Germany are all industrial giants IV. Industrialization in the rest of Europe: “The Lands That Time Forgot” a. Some specialized industrialization, not entire nation b. Ongoing dominance of traditional, agrarian-‐based economy (economy based on land cultivation) c. Sources of raw materials and primary production for industrializing neighbors Political reordering (WTWA 541-‐545) Revolutions in Iberian America Brazil: -‐ Brazil’s fight for freedom avoided revolution -‐ French troops invaded Portugal and the royal Braganza family fled to Brazil -‐ The king was later persuaded to return to Portugal, but he left his son, Pedro, in charge -‐ The people’s pleas for independence and statehood resonated with Pedro and he crowned himself head of this independent Brazilian state by constitutional monarchy -‐ Pedro was supported by Brazilian elites who wanted to avoid slave insurrections or regional insurrections -‐ Haiti sent shock waves across the Caribbean that slave uprisings were possible -‐ But the central government silenced any attempt at these uprisings and revolts by gauchos and urban slaves -‐ By the 1840s Brazil had achieved political stability and liberation without revolution Mexico: -‐ Mexico and other Latin American colonies gained autonomy (separation) from the Spanish crown during the Napoleonic Wars -‐ When the crown regained power, American-‐born Spaniards (Creoles) and people born in Spain (Peninsulares) fought over this power because the Peninsulares wanted their elite positions back (usually officers) and the Creoles weren’t having it -‐ Peninsulares used Enlightenment ideals to back themselves up -‐ In Mexico between 1810-‐1813, Father Hidalgo and Morelos organized a revolt of peasants, Indians and artisans calling for the redistribution of wealth and land reform -‐ The rebellion was finally overcome -‐ But when the Spanish army was unable to prevent anarchy, the local Mexican army joined the Creoles in proclaiming Mexico’s independence in 1821 Other South American Revolutions: -‐ Simón Bolívar and San Martín led revolutions in the rest of Spain’s colonies for fourteen years -‐ This mobilized Indians, mestizos (Latin and European mixed), and slaves as well as elites -‐ But when these wars ended, civil wars began between different groups from ethnic to religious to social -‐ Therefore, multiple states appeared rather than a unified state -‐ They were usually controlled by social elites and ruled by military chieftains called caudillos Book Notes: -‐ An Industrious Revolution vs. An Industrial Revolution -‐ Scholars call an industrious revolution when individual households devote less time to leisure activities and more time to working, using the extra money they make to produce even more -‐ An industrial revolution encompasses technological advances and inventions -‐ The bourgeoisie is the rising middle class consisting of urban businessmen, financiers, and other property owners without aristocratic ties -‐ China didn’t follow the industrial revolution because they were way too focused on land cultivation and agriculture, which made them vulnerable to cheap manufactured imports from European traders backed by their governments extolling the virtues of free trade
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