Intro to Sociology Notes- Week 1 (Lecture & Reading Notes)
Intro to Sociology Notes- Week 1 (Lecture & Reading Notes) Soc 100
Popular in Introductory Sociology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Sociology
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jordan Pimental on Sunday January 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 100 at Indiana University taught by Professor Felicia Helvey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Introductory Sociology in Sociology at Indiana University.
Reviews for Intro to Sociology Notes- Week 1 (Lecture & Reading Notes)
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 01/10/16
Lecture Notes for January 13, 2015 (Reading Notes Begin on Page 3 of this packet.) Culture & Society Learning Goals for the Day: Be able to answer the following questions: 1. What are differences between culture and society? 2. What are the elements of culture? 3. What is ideal culture? Real culture? 4. What is the difference between assimilation and multiculturalism *I will place an asterisk next to each point that indicates one of these learning goals* All term definitions will be highlighted. Culture and Society: What are they? *Society: A complex pattern of social relationships bounded in space and persisting over time. There are 2 types of societies: Gemeinschaft and Geselleschaft Gemeinschaft: Traditional society characterized by face-to-face relations Gesellschaft: Modern society characterized by impersonal, distant, and limited social relations. *Culture: the ideas, values, practices, and material objects that allow a group of people, even an entire society, to carry out their collective lives in relative order and harmony. *The Elements of Culture* *Values: general and abstract standards defining what a group or society as a whole considers good, desirable, right, or important. *Norms: informal rules that guide what people do and how they live. -are not officially sanctioned, but as a general rule, people still abide by these norms. -Sanctions are a reaction to either the observation of or the violation of a norm. Observation of a norm will result in a positive sanction such as praise or a reward. Violation of a norm will result in a negative sanction such as a scolding or a punishment. *Material Culture: material objects that have cultural significance *Symbolic Culture and Language Internal & External Changes Internal: Younger generations have a more favorable attitude toward same-sex marriage. This is an internal change within American culture. -The cultural “fix” for this change is that same-sex marriage was debated and legalized nationally. When changes occur in a culture they need addressed in order for the culture to grow and thrive. External: Smartphones allow Americans do more easily and in more varied ways contact each other. This is an external change because it has little to do with individual choice, and more with outside factors such as the technological innovation of smartphones. -This external change has other effects on the culture as well, such as the development of a society more enamored by the idea of instant gratification. Cultural Differences and Conflict Ideal Culture VS Real Culture *Ideal Culture: what everyone believes should happen *Real Culture: What actually happens Example: Voting. Our culture highly values the right to vote, and so ideally everyone would vote. However, in reality, only just over half of the people who can vote do. That number is even smaller for local elections. Cultural Differences (2 types) Subculture: groups of people who accept much of dominant culture but are set apart from it by one or more culturally significant characteristics. (Examples: Hipsters, Greek Life, LGBT community) Counterculture: groups that not only differ from the dominant culture but also adhere to norms and values that may be incompatible with those of dominant culture. (Examples: Amish, Anonymous) *Multiculturalism and Assimilation *Multiculturalism: environment where cultural differences are accepted and appreciated both by state and by the majority group. *Assimilation: Integrating the minority group into the mainstream. Reading Notes (p. 89-105) A Definition of Culture *Culture: encompasses ideas, values, practices and material objects that allow a group of people, even an entire society, to carry out their collective lives in relative order and harmony. No one individual can know all aspects of a culture Knowledge of a shared culture leads people to behave and view the world similarly However, there are still differences within cultures. Newcomers to a culture are taught basic elements of a culture early. Internal Change for a culture Age population within that group Gender composition External changes for a culture Technological innovations *Basic Elements of a Culture* Values: the general and abstract standards defining what a group or society considers good, desirable, right or important. Alex de Tocqueville (1835-1840) Perceived America’s values as: Democracy, equality, individualism, “taste for physical comfort”, spirituality, and economic prosperity. >Assuming that others hold the same values as one’s society can be disastrous. Example: America trying to establish a democracy in a country that did not have a tradition of democracy in their culture resulted in failure and difficulty. This was also difficult because America assumed that because American culture values democracy that other cultures would want this as well. (Afghanistan) Norms: informal rules, based on values, that guide what people do and how they live Laws: Norms that have been codified -Note that citizens of a society are expected to follow both, however only laws are officially sanctioned. Sanctions: Punishment or reward depending on whether a norm has been observed or violated Folkways: relatively unimportant norms that carry few if any sanctions Mores (pronounced MOR-ays): more important norms whose violations are likely accompanied by strict negative sanctions. Illustrative Example: At Wal-Mart there are Laws against shoplifting, Mores against damaging store displays, and Folkways about lining up and checking out. Material Culture: encompasses all the artifacts (“stuff”) in which culture is reflected or manifested (Example: The value Americans place on economic prosperity is reflected in games like Monopoly.) -Material Culture also shapes larger culture -By playing Monopoly, Kids learn of, help support, and further a culture valueing wealth and material success Symbolic Culture and Language Symbolic Culture: includes nonmaterial and intangible aspects of culture, such as values and norms. However there is no clear line between material and nonmaterial aspects of culture, because material aspects of culture often carry symbolic meaning. Language: a set of meaningful symbols that enables communication -Allows for storage and development of culture -Written language is most effective in achieving this end -Language makes communication between cultures easier if they share a mother tongue -Language facilitates communication within a culture Cultural Differences *Ideal and Real Culture Ideal Culture: What norms and values of society lead us to think people should believe and do Real Culture: What people actually think and do in their every day lives Ideology Ideology: a set of shared beliefs that explains the social world and guides people’s actions. -Meritocracy: dominant ideology in US involving the widely shared belief that all people have an equal chance of succeeding economically based on their hard work and skills. -Not all ideologies are true. Subcultures & Countercultures Subcultures: groups of people who accept much of the dominant culture but are set apart from it by one or more culturally significant characteristics. (Examples: LGBT, Hispanics) -Arise in consumption in the form of “brand communities,” such as Harley Davidson bikers or Apple products. Countercultures: groups that not only differ from dominant culture but also adhere to norms and values that may be incompatible with those of the dominant culture. Culture Wars Culture Wars: a conflict pitting a subculture or counterculture against the dominant culture or a conflict between dominant groups in a society (Example: Hippies against unthinking patriotism and taboos against recreational drugs and sexual freedom.) Major Culture War in US Today: Conservative VS Liberal end of sociopolitical system *Multiculturalism & Assimilation Multiculturalism: an environment in which cultural differences are accepted and appreciated both by state and by the majority group. Assimilation: integrating the minority group into the mainstream Identity Politics -Minority groups assert their right to retain their distinctive cultures and their right not to assimilate Identity Politics: Using their power to strengthen the position of the cultural groups with which they identify. The goal: creation of a truly multicultural society Cultural Relativism and Ethnocentrism Cultural Relativism: the idea that aspects of a culture such as norms and values need to be understood within the context of that culture. There are no cultural universals or universally accepted norms and values Ethnocentrism: belief that the norms, values, traditions, and material and symbolic aspects of one’s own culture are better than those of another. -Helpful Chart on P. 105- Reading Notes (P. 160-162) Societies Society: complex pattern of social relationships that is bounded in space and persists over time. Ferdinand Toennies: Developed the two different types of societies Gemeinschaft: Characterized by face-to-face relations Families, rural villages, small towns Relationships are valued for their intrinsic qualities Gesellschaft: Modern society characterized by impersonal, distant, and limited social relationships Value relationships for what they might gain from it These are both ideal types. In the real world, aspects of both exist in all societies. A more narrow and specific definition of society could be: A relatively large population that lives in a given territory, has social structure, and shares a culture. Talcot Parsons Structural-functionalist Positive view of macro-level societies Concerned with major structures of societies such as: economy, political system, systems responsible for transmitting cultural norms and values (schools), and the legal system Ulrich Beck Argues that a move has taken place from an Industrial Society to a Risk Society Industrial Risk Key Issue: Wealth & even distribution -Key Issue: risk: how to prevent, Concerned with Equality minimalize, and channel it. Solidarity came from people joining -Concerned with how to stay safe Together for positive goal of creating in the face of increasing risk A more equal society -Solidarity comes from largely Negative and defensive goal of Being spared from danger. Risk Society is weaker more individualized and less laudable than Industrial Society.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'