Week 2 video notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vanessa Notetaker on Sunday January 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at Florida State University taught by David Houle in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views.
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Date Created: 01/10/16
WEEK 2 VIDEO NOTES Sources of Info Types of sources: Scientific literature News media and their websites Science Magazines and their websites Wikipedia Expert websites Books Other web sites Advantages and Disadvantages of sources Scientific literature Advantages: Can get the latest information Details the evidence Peers think it is convincing Disadvantages: Can be hard to understand Science is difficult to do. Results may be replicate Often narrow view of topic News media Advantages: Easy to understand – written for non-scientist Its what people know or talk about Sometimes leads you to scientific literature Disadvantages: Often get science a bit wrong Point is to get viewers, clicks, not truth Minimal detail May not give alternative views Science magazines Advantages: Written for the smart non-expert Leads you to scientific lit Can be broad overview Disadvantages: Can be superficial Can be biased Can include misinterpretations Wikipedia Advantage: Accessible Comprehensive coverage of major topics Broad view of topics Often includes alternative viewpoints Disadvantages: Can be superficial Can be wrong, scammed Articles on obscure topics can be poor quality References to literature are poor Expert websites Advantages: Accessible Comprehensive Can give scientific references Disadvantages: Can be superficial May be out of date Does not cover controversial or new info Books Advantages: Can have every advantage Best books give lots of detail Can give scientific references Disadvantages: Can have every flaw Can be biased Will not have the latest information Can be time-consuming to read Other web sites Advantages: No filter that prevents posting Best sites give valuable info Exciting, new ideas can be found Scientific references Disadvantages: No filter Worst cites are biased When online, it’s there forever How to evaluate a source 1. Who published this? Are they an expert and when did the begin working on this? 2. Is there evidence to support an argument? 3. Are alternative viewpoints written about? 4. What motivated them to make this source available? Varieties of scientific literature Primary literature Primary peer-reviewed papers Secondary literature Reviews (usually peer-reviewed) o Narrative reviews – wide range summary, whatever strikes the author as relevant o Systematic reviews – prevent bias authors, explicit criteria for which evidence is relevant o Meta-analysis – different authors do a different experiment, take their estimates and analyze everything, strict criteria Commentaries, perspectives, opinion pieces, book reviews (some) Scientific books (usually) Multi-author books, symposia (some) HOMOLOGY How Darwin changed the world Published book – The Origin of Species Scholar that did a great job in assembling the evidence available to him to make his case on evolution. Darwin’s major points: 1. Evolution had occurred and was the explanation for the diversity of life 2. Natural selection is the mechanism in which organisms change through time Successful in convincing peers that evolution did occur. Mendel figured out the Laws of Inheritance by studying peas. What did Darwin mean by evolution? Descent with modification. Speciation – Human beings can only produce with one-another. However, at one point, chimpanzees were very similar with humans. At one point, the similarities split. This is speciation. Homology Darwin: Similarity too great to be due to function alone (NON-EVOLUTIONARY) o This definition is non-evolutionary, and was used to contrast with analogy Analogy: Similarity due to function (same bones in the body used differently) Modern definition of homology is evolutionary: Similarity due to descent from a common ancestor (EVOLUTIONARY) Recognizing Homology 1. Similarity of position 2. Structure 3. Development 4. Can you do it differently? Analogy versus Homology Similarity of function Example: The way an octopus eye works versus the way a human eye works Explanations for Homology Hypothesis 1: Homology reflects something (unknown) about the mind of God. Hypothesis 2: Homology is due to inheritance of traits from a common ancestor. Plagiarism is like homology: the similarity is too great to be due to change Numbers vs. Symbols Analogy is like copying o Copying over many generations from a common ancestor Homology and the Tree of Life Classified by ‘special habits” Phylogenic tree Breaks down species by main groups to sub-groups. Taxon Any group of organisms, individual, species, genus. Etc. The plural of taxon is taxa Root is the base of the tree. The root is the past, and the tip is the present. Node is a branch point (one ancestor splits into 2) Branch connects the node Clade us a node and all the descendants from that node Homology and trees
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