Psych 330 Week 2 Lectures and Ch. 2 Book notes
Psych 330 Week 2 Lectures and Ch. 2 Book notes PSY 330
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melissa on Sunday January 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 330 at University of Oregon taught by Ted Bell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Psy 330 thinking in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 01/10/16
1. Thinking:the manipulation or alteration of an internal representation 2. Thinking is tied to how and what we remember A. What we hear and what we experience distorts our perception of risk 3. Memory: Acquisition, Retention, and Retrieval of Knowledge A. Learning and memory are behaviors that must be used over and over again a. Memories are stored in associative networks 1. spider-like organizations of information in which closely related topics are located near each other and those that bear little relationship to each other are far away A. Which is why we remember and associate certain objects or situations with feelings and emotions B. What we believe about memory is mostly wrong a. Change blindness blindness is when people reject the idea that they actually missed major events in their environment b. Memory without awareness 1. occurs when we have information we do not know we know 2. Implicit memory or the memory that cannot be accessed using usual methods of responding c. The illusion of truth 1. information encountered previously even if at the time you knew it might be a. Lie makes it more likely that you will believe the info when it is encountered a second time than if you had not been told the original lie 2. People believe that repeated remembering is particularly truthful A. Reason why rumors are eﬀective d. Classical conditioning 1. Stimulus that is ﬂashed too quickly to be recognized is called subliminal and thus was not registered consciously A. used in politics to subtly associate competitors with disturbing objects or emotions e. Varieties of Memory 1. Thinking is the manipulation or transformation of some internal representation(knowledge) 2. Memory is divided into three parts A. Sensory Memory B. Working memory a. represents the place and processes that are used when we think 1. memory has a limited capacity A. can't remember everything b. The hypothetical space where we perform the work or thinking easier to reduce amount of space or eﬀort needed as working memory 1. To do this we use shortcuts or external aids A. shopping lists B. Categories C. Make decisions about what info we really need and how much eﬀort it will take to remember it C. Long-Term memory a. represents the storage of memories over long periods of time b. Must be greater than 30 seconds c. Requires diﬀerent methods for diﬀerent things needed to be remembered d. Governed by how long something needs to be remembered for e. Is aﬀected by previously known information and how easily it can be recalled f. The diﬀerent memory systems 1. Episodic memory A. memory for events in which we can recall our own participation and when and where we learned them 2. Semantic A. memory that we have for facts 3. Motor Memory- motor skills A. Your body seems to automatically do it but you cannot really explain how it is happening 4. Procedural Memory A. remembering how to do something B. shares similarities with motor memory 5. Automatic Memory A. Example would be situations in which they are frequently remembered such as how many times you have gone to the movies in the last month 6. Eﬀortful memory A. Requires you to actually think about what is being asked B. Can turn into automatic with practice 7. Two types of recall memory A. Intentional learning in which a person does something speciﬁcally for material they are trying to learn or in other words they do not plan on understanding or analyzing why they are choosing the answer B. Incidental information is information that is learned without deliberate eﬀort 4. Acquisition A. Strategies that promote learning a. Being fully engaged when learning something new helps to remember things later b. Pay Attention 1. When learning something new say it aloud so it registers within c. Monitor Meaning 1. When you are more interested in a topic you have a easier time remembering those details because in taking interest in the subject you are paying closer attention d. Information is easier to remember when given information about the context of what is about to be learned prior to reading something 1. advance organizers: the preliminary information acts as a guide or framework that helps the learner to anticipate information and to relate it to other topics e. Distribute Learning 1. Don't Cram f. Get organized g. Generate multiple cues for retrieval 1. Inert Knowledge: knowledge that you cannot recall when it is needed 2. Encoding speciﬁcity: the idea that material is most likely to be recalled when you are presented with the same cues that were available when you learned it h. Over learn i. Be aware of non cognitive factors 1. Fatigue 2. Drugs 3. Anxiety 5. Retention A. The constructive nature of memory a. Memories are frequently inaccurate, we tend to ﬁll in the missing information with what we believe happened, and are more conﬁdent in what we remember when it was emotionally taxing which breaks down the relationship between conﬁdence and accuracy b. Memory is inﬂuenced by... 1. Prior knowledge 2. Stereotypes and Prejudice A. Our beliefs are not easily changed; we tend to change our memory for what we saw and heard so that the memory is made consistent with our beliefs 3. Interference and Distortion A. People have a hard time distinguishing between thoughts and perceptions 4. Real and False Memories A. Need to have a healthy skepticism when it comes to false memories 6. Retrieval A. Forgetting a. Interference theory of forgetting: idea that events interfere with each other in memory 1. learning two diﬀerent languages at the same time 2. the more similar two things are the more they will get mixed up b. Thinking and Forgetting 1. Tip of the tongue: you feel like you know what the answer is but cannot recall 2. People believe if they cannot recall something then it was never there c. Recall Errors 1. Slip of the tongue errors A. Parents calling you by your siblings name a. Indicates that the storage of certain information is not being stored in the right places B. Chunking. a. Reducing a large number of items to a single item to be remembered 1. The single item typically has meaning to the person so that in recalling information they know exactly what the group of words will be 7. Metamemory A. One's personal knowledge of his or her own memory system B. Active learning C. Ease. Of learning judgements a. where a person carefully assesses the ease with which he or she expects to achieve learning D. Quality of learning judgements: judgement of how well you are learning E. Feelings of known judgements F. When using material in a response make degree of conﬁdence judgements about answers G. Meta memory is improved when people actually monitor types of info they are to learn 8. Mnemonics A. Techniques for organizing and elaborating information so that is can be more easily remembered B. External memory aids: sticky notes, timers, shopping lists C. Internal memory aids: mnemonics that are designed to help us retrieve info about memory a. Pegwords and images 1. Pegwords are hooks for info that is learned later 2. Best when they are interactivity and can provide detailed imagery b. Rhymes c. Method of Places 1. also known as the method of loci 2. When you choose a familiar route and remember speciﬁc objects based on that route D. Mnemonic Principles a. Paradoxical because to remember something you have to remember something a little extra E. External Memory Aids a. also called cognitive prostheses b. Prospective memory 1. memory for a future event A. An alarm F. The Cognitive Interview a. uses cognitive psychology about how info is organized and the types of retrieval cues that can work to prime recall b. Recall is enhanced by 1. Recall ordinary events that occurred before the event you are trying to remember and visualize it 2. Think about the event from beginning to end and end to beginning 3. Change your perspective 9. Biases in memory A. Conﬁrmation Bias B. Vivid, Dramatic, Personal and Familiar a. People are more conﬁdent in remembering things that fall under this category 1. Typically not accurate tho
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