New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

MICR 3050 Week 1 Lecture Notes

Star Star Star Star Star
1 review
by: Toni Franken

MICR 3050 Week 1 Lecture Notes MICR 3050

Marketplace > Clemson University > Microbiology > MICR 3050 > MICR 3050 Week 1 Lecture Notes
Toni Franken
GPA 3.97
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for General Microbiology

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive General Microbiology notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

These notes encompass the introductory material of Chapter 1 that was discussed in the first week of classes. This is mainly the first lecture of material.
General Microbiology
Dr. Whitehead
Class Notes
micro, Microbiology, Whitehead, Clemson, microorganisms, Lecture 1, week 1, microbio, MICR, MICR3050, 3050, general micro, General Microbiology, General Microbio




Star Star Star Star Star
1 review
Star Star Star Star Star
"these were really helpful and easy to follow, definitely recommend"
Amelia Rzeczycki

Popular in General Microbiology

Popular in Microbiology

This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Toni Franken on Sunday January 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to MICR 3050 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Whitehead in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see General Microbiology in Microbiology at Clemson University.

Similar to MICR 3050 at Clemson

Popular in Microbiology


Reviews for MICR 3050 Week 1 Lecture Notes

Star Star Star Star Star

these were really helpful and easy to follow, definitely recommend

-Amelia Rzeczycki


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 01/10/16
MICR 3050 – Notes Set 1, 01/08/2016 Dr. Whitehead, Clemson University Chapter 1, Intro to Microbiology Party Fact of the Day:  Oral microbiota: The microbes that live in your mouth. There are at least 700 species that are commonly found in a healthy human mouth. Mouth to mouth contact is often found in animal species for feeding purposes, for mate selection, etc. However, “intimate kissing” (French  kissing) – done only in the human species, and spreads billions of microbes in one exchange. Chapter 1: What are Microorganisms: Organisms and acellular entities too small to be clearly seen by the unaided eye. They are generally less than or equal to 1mm in diameter, and often  unicellular. Acellular (A­ meaning without, so without cells) entities are like viruses (debates on  if they actually live). There are exceptions to every statement.  Exceptions: Mold on bread – large enough to see with the naked eye. Some  photosynthetic microbes, also. Some new, large microbes have been discovered in the recent  years as well. We also have a few organisms that are multicellular (but less complex) that are  considered microorganisms.  Everything is divided into cellular or acellular. Cellular entities (3 domains of life:  bacteria, archaea, eukarya; Protists/Fungi fall into Eukarya) are definitely living. Acellular are  often debated as far as being living or not. (viruses and prions most common; viroids (sort of  viruses) – these categories are not included in the 3 domains of life).  Microorganisms are important for various reasons.   They’re the most populous and diverse group of organisms (estimated 5 x 10^30).  They’re found everywhere except possibly a healthy human brain.   They recycle elements (such as nitrogen fixing, carbon recycling, etc).   They’re a source of nutrients for some organisms, and some carry out  photosynthesis (although slightly differently than plants).   Most of them are beneficial or benign, and a very few commonly cause human  disease.   They influence all living things, and they’re great models for experimental study  due to quick generation turn around, and is much less likely to spark controversy.  Types of Microbial Cells:  Prokaryotic cells: The term prokaryote technically means without a membrane  bound nucleus, and tend to not have membrane bound organelles. It’s a controversial term  because it tells you what an organism is NOT, but not what it IS. There are also exceptions to  the term, such as prokaryotes that have membrane bound nuclei or organelles, but are technically classified as prokaryotes, or some prokaryotes that are larger and more complex than most.  Prokaryotes typically contain genetic material in a nucleoid, a tangled mass in the center of the  cell. They are capable of performing the same functions as eukaryotes, just in different ways. Eukaryotic cells: have a membrane bound nucleus, and tend to be larger and  more complex. Often talking about protists and fungi.  Acellular microbes: NOT considered cellular, and therefore do not fall into this  category. See the following for more details. Acellular Infectious Agents: Virus: Viruses must have some type of protein coat on the outside shell, and must have some type of nucleic acid (genetic information) in the core. Genetic information in viruses  is much more varied than in cellular organisms – can have single or double stranded DNA or  RNA, could have + or – RNA. Viruses HAVE to have a host cell to replicate. There’s a debate about if viruses are living or not, because if it can’t reproduce on its own, is it truly alive?  Influenza virus has spikes on the outside of it. There’s a whole subset of viruses that prey only  on bacteria (bacteriophages), and a whole subset that are involved in cancer development in  humans. Tend to be incredibly small, where you may only be able to see them with an electron  microscope. Next in size would be prokaryotic cells, followed by eukaryotic. Viroids and Virusoids: By definition, “less than” viruses. They are typically  RNA based. They tend to infect animals and plants.  Prions: Infectious proteins: “mad cow disease,” Scrapies, Kuru, etc. Prion  diseases are all 100% fatal.  Classification: Universal Phylogenetic Tree The Universal Phylogenic Tree is a 3 domain system, developed by Carl Woess,  based on a comparison of the DNA encoding small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU RNA).  Ribosomes are the machinery to help in translation of genetic material. A Ribosome has a small  subunit that contains SSU RNA. 16S rRNA is in bacteria. 18S is found in eukaryotes. In each  organism’s SSU RNA, there is a gene related to the “molecular clock,” which is used to predict  where organisms stand in the evolutionary line. All organisms have the SSU rRNA in some  form. This allows us to compare them all.  On the Universal Tree of Life, the Eukaryotic Crown Species of Animals, Fungi,  and Plants are only a very small number of organisms. The vast majority fall into  microorganisms. The base organism of the entire tree is called LUCA; Last Universal  Common Ancestor. Archea and Bacteria are very similar to each other, and were originally  thought to be close in evolutionary development. However, SSU rRNA show that bacteria have  evolved separately from Archea and Eukarya.  The basic process of developing the Universal Phylogenic tree is to take cells, isolate and  extract DNA, and use PCR to make thousands of copies of a particular portion of the SSU rRNA, and get the gene sequence. They then compare the organisms’ gene sequences, and look for the  differences. The more differences there are, the less related those organisms are from an  evolutionary standpoint.  Domain: Bacteria This domain contains only prokaryotes. They are usually single celled, but some bacteria work in groups and cooperate with each other. Also have a pheonmena in bacteria where there are ‘cheaters” that don’t do what they’re supposed to. Almost all of them are surrounded  with a cell wall made of peptidoglycan, and have a cell membrane under it. They’re abundant  everywhere. Soil, water, air, on/in other organisms. Some live in incredibly extreme  environments (NASA clean rooms).  Domain: Archaea Prokaryotes: usually single celled. Distinct SSU RNA sequences. They’re quite  different from bacteria evolutionarily. They don’t have peptidoglycan in their cell walls, and  their cell membrane contain particular lipids. Some have unusual metabolic characteristics;  methanogens = archaea that make methane. Methanogens are found in about 2/3 of the human  population’s intestines. Many of them live in extreme environments and thrive. Get protection  from their unique membrane lipids. Some can survive at 110 degrees C. Can survive in 9%  Sodium Chloride, where sea water is only at .9% sodium chloride.  Domain: Eukarya Protists: typically unicellular, but generally larger than members of Bacteria and  Archea. No peptidoglycan. Algae, protozoa, slime molds, and water molds. Malaria – active  agent is a protest. River Blindness. Giardia.  Fungi: These organisms run the whole range from unicellular yeasts to  multicellular mushrooms and larger fungi. Argument that the single biggest living thing is a  fungus right now. Go from relatively simple and relatively complex. Microbiology mostly  focuses on yeasts and molds: wine/beer production. 


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.