A/HI 1/6/16: Week 1
A/HI 1/6/16: Week 1 A/HI 240
Western Washington University
Popular in Visual Culture in Western Europe in the 19th century
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Notetaker on Sunday January 10, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to A/HI 240 at Western Washington University taught by Miller, Barbara in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 136 views. For similar materials see Visual Culture in Western Europe in the 19th century in Art History at Western Washington University.
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Date Created: 01/10/16
[A/HI 240] [Miller, Barbara] [Introduction to the 19th century] Highlight = Important Principle /Event/Place Highlight = Important Concept Highlight = Key People • There was no concept of extinction before the 19th century. -‐ "The American Elephant" led to the discovery of extinction (Mastodon/Mammut) -‐ Louis XVI bought the extinct elephant bones to display • Darwin journeys to the Galapagos during this time -‐ Begins to formulate theories of evolution There is suddenly a fusion between science and art. -‐ 19th century western culture invented the concept of nature (Ernst Haeckel) • Bucolic landscape (1): of relating to the country or country life (AKA pastoralism) • Sublime (2): the quality of greatness, whether physical, moral, intellectual, metaphysical, aesthetic, spiritual, or artistic. It usually inspires awe and wonder. • Man vs. nature(3): Man surviving the wilderness (1) (2) (3) In the 19th century: • Rise of the academy • Rulers realized that art was good propaganda -‐ Absolutism: French kings appeared in paintings • Previously there were only craftsmen and guilds Art is a form of visual communication Leon Battista Alberti -‐ De Pictura • Instructed painters to consider the frame of the painting as an open window • Woman is looking out the window, facing her back to t he audience (makes it seem as if audience is participating) • Closer to nature • Frame provides order • Subject is center backstage John Ruskin -‐ "every age has its own unique vision" -‐ What is your worldview? -‐ What were people's worldviews when they thought that th e world was flat and not round? Art does not arise out of thin air it is the result of… 1. Artistic innovation and experimentation with historical forms and technological developments. 2. Interpersonal: artists interactions with the culture around them his/her reaction to social, economic, and political events that occur in that era. 3. Intrapersonal: often includes emotion and psychological responses -‐ E.g. artists started drawing their dreams The Industrial Revolution • Began in England • 1760s • Refers to a global change in social views • Shift from human +animal labor to the power of machines • Mass production begins • Major changes in agriculture, textile, metal manufacturers and transportation. James Watt's invention of the steam engine (1769) • Development that fueled the Industrial Revolution • Access to rail/ocean travel • Turner paints steam engine • Monet (train station painting) Manet and other artists adopt Japanese art approaches • Space • Color scheme • East meets west The Great Exhibition: Crystal Palace (built by John Paxton 1851) • Nations from around the world have the opportunity to share their culture • Glass and iron made building • Machinery and science is exchanged Upper and middle class b enefitted from Industrial revolutions • Artisans crafts become less available • Bourgeoisie: upper/middle class • Proletariats: workers/working class Industrial Revolution = Mass Pollution • The Great Stink of 1858 • Instigated a profound alteration in our valu e systems • Led to… American Revolution (1776) French Revolution (1789) Images: http://www.christies.com/lotfinder/painting s/william-‐mulready-‐a-‐bucolic-‐landscape-‐of-‐ the-‐5707994-‐details.aspx http://thouarthistory.blogspot.com/2009/03/man -‐at-‐odds-‐with-‐nature.html https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leon_Battista_Alberti