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Week 10, Islam in Africa Notes

by: Raleigh Zook

Week 10, Islam in Africa Notes RELA 3900/ RELI3900

Raleigh Zook
GPA 3.55

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About this Document

These notes discuss the traditional, colonial, and post-colonial education systems in Africa.
Islam in Africa
Cynthia Hoehler-Fatton
Class Notes
islam, Africa, religion, Education, Colonialism, Post-Colonialism, Traditional, Muslim
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Raleigh Zook on Friday April 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to RELA 3900/ RELI3900 at University of Virginia taught by Cynthia Hoehler-Fatton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Islam in Africa in Religious Studies at University of Virginia.

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Date Created: 04/08/16
Islamic Education in African Societies To leave would be to capitulate (during the colonialism period); Others called for  hijra; Others interpreted it as the beginning of the end  Focus on inner path—mysticism Adaptibility  Nothing is fixed; Not static  Even institutions changed over time; Islamic schools were never static  (even in pre­colonial times) o Oral tradition—what gets passed down is modified and cast in a  way that reflects current circumstances  Variety of strategies (e.g. mneumonic devices) o Translations into vernacular languages o Continual change after colonialism (response to secularism) Bronner and Umar  Foucault (French philosopher) o Transmission of knowledge is decided by those in power (who  receives knowledge) o Dissemination of knowledge parallels with socio­economic order o Different types/levels of knowledge  Episteme: Most broadly based; Dominant way of knowing; A  worldview, but not characterized by content, but by a way of  producing and acquiring knowledge; Implicit; Set of norms  that unite discursive practices; Inescapable  Shift from traditional to modern system during the colonial period o Pivoting from an esoteric (restricted, secretive) episteme to a  “rationalistic”/democratic (open, bureaucratized) educational  system  Structure becomes regularized or open, does not hinge on  personal relationships anymore o Esoteric: More hierarchical; Through initiation to transform its  possessor (Holistic transformation) o Rationalistic: Available to everyone; Marginalizes emotion, religion,  and mysticism; Quran still accepted, but in regards of knowledge, it  is openly accessible; Intellectual development not guided by  spiritual development  Education separate from religious education Traditional System (Pre­colonial System)  Quran school (chuo) o Single­teachers (typically in their homes)  Students go to live with them to read and learn the Quran  o “Primary school” (Graduate when fully learn Quran) o Focuses on memorizing o Memorize without comprehension o Night of the Quran o Link between memorization and devotion (piety)  Most profound act (for children); Form of respect o Cultivating a respect for the learned men and women o Bila kayf: without questioning (why/how)  God is not idol speculation o Teacher possesses Baraka (spiritual power)  Teaching is an act of piety  Majlis (‘ilm school) o Second phase; Leaving Quran school to go to another teacher(s) o Islamic disciplines based off individual texts  Usually begins with tafsir (textual interpretation/translation;  learning the meaning of the Quran) Madrasa  Secular subjects taught along with religious subjects  Differences: o Critical for power and influence; critical for national development o Taught in accordance with the “rationalism”/democratic pedagogy o Primary and secondary education systems o As education is opened, opportunities for females to attend schools increases  Night classes for married women  Colonial and post­colonial periods o Waqfs: Benevolent societies o Allowed to teach Muslim subjects if also taught secular subjects  Still felt marginalized o Private Muslim schools funded by waqf funds  Inferior to the Muslim­Christian schools o Madrasas funded by mosques o Expected to meet requirements; Subsidies from government if met  curriculum  1990s onward o Many funded by external donors o Influx of privatized schools  Result of economic changes  Disinvestment of public services, so they looked for foreign  donors


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