Week 10, Islam in Africa Notes
Week 10, Islam in Africa Notes RELA 3900/ RELI3900
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Raleigh Zook on Friday April 8, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to RELA 3900/ RELI3900 at University of Virginia taught by Cynthia Hoehler-Fatton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Islam in Africa in Religious Studies at University of Virginia.
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Date Created: 04/08/16
Islamic Education in African Societies To leave would be to capitulate (during the colonialism period); Others called for hijra; Others interpreted it as the beginning of the end Focus on inner path—mysticism Adaptibility Nothing is fixed; Not static Even institutions changed over time; Islamic schools were never static (even in precolonial times) o Oral tradition—what gets passed down is modified and cast in a way that reflects current circumstances Variety of strategies (e.g. mneumonic devices) o Translations into vernacular languages o Continual change after colonialism (response to secularism) Bronner and Umar Foucault (French philosopher) o Transmission of knowledge is decided by those in power (who receives knowledge) o Dissemination of knowledge parallels with socioeconomic order o Different types/levels of knowledge Episteme: Most broadly based; Dominant way of knowing; A worldview, but not characterized by content, but by a way of producing and acquiring knowledge; Implicit; Set of norms that unite discursive practices; Inescapable Shift from traditional to modern system during the colonial period o Pivoting from an esoteric (restricted, secretive) episteme to a “rationalistic”/democratic (open, bureaucratized) educational system Structure becomes regularized or open, does not hinge on personal relationships anymore o Esoteric: More hierarchical; Through initiation to transform its possessor (Holistic transformation) o Rationalistic: Available to everyone; Marginalizes emotion, religion, and mysticism; Quran still accepted, but in regards of knowledge, it is openly accessible; Intellectual development not guided by spiritual development Education separate from religious education Traditional System (Precolonial System) Quran school (chuo) o Singleteachers (typically in their homes) Students go to live with them to read and learn the Quran o “Primary school” (Graduate when fully learn Quran) o Focuses on memorizing o Memorize without comprehension o Night of the Quran o Link between memorization and devotion (piety) Most profound act (for children); Form of respect o Cultivating a respect for the learned men and women o Bila kayf: without questioning (why/how) God is not idol speculation o Teacher possesses Baraka (spiritual power) Teaching is an act of piety Majlis (‘ilm school) o Second phase; Leaving Quran school to go to another teacher(s) o Islamic disciplines based off individual texts Usually begins with tafsir (textual interpretation/translation; learning the meaning of the Quran) Madrasa Secular subjects taught along with religious subjects Differences: o Critical for power and influence; critical for national development o Taught in accordance with the “rationalism”/democratic pedagogy o Primary and secondary education systems o As education is opened, opportunities for females to attend schools increases Night classes for married women Colonial and postcolonial periods o Waqfs: Benevolent societies o Allowed to teach Muslim subjects if also taught secular subjects Still felt marginalized o Private Muslim schools funded by waqf funds Inferior to the MuslimChristian schools o Madrasas funded by mosques o Expected to meet requirements; Subsidies from government if met curriculum 1990s onward o Many funded by external donors o Influx of privatized schools Result of economic changes Disinvestment of public services, so they looked for foreign donors
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