Chem 100: Lesson 1 Notes
Chem 100: Lesson 1 Notes Chem 100
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna Saprykin on Monday January 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 100 at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee taught by Dr christine carlson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Chemical Science in Chemistry at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee.
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Date Created: 01/11/16
Chemistry 100 Lesson 1 Classification of matter Chemistry: Study of matter and how it interacts Matter: Anything that has mass + takes up space Energy: Capacity to do work Atom: the smallest unit of an element that has chemical properties of that Element 0 = Elemental Oxygen 2 SnO= Atom of Oxygen Below are the charts that will be needed to memorize for Exam 1: The Chemical symbols Chemical Symbols for the Elements (the ones that you need to learn) Ag Silver K Potassium Al Aluminum Kr Krypton Ar Argon Li Lithium As Arsenic Mg Magnesium Au Gold Mn Manganese B Boron N Nitrogen Ba Barium Na Sodium Be Beryllium Ne Neon Br Bromine Ni Nickel C Carbon O Oxygen Ca Calcium P Phosphorus Cd Cadmium Pb Lead Ce Cerium Pd Palladium Cl Chlorine Pt Platinum Co Cobalt Rn Radon Cr Chromium S Sulfur Cs Cesium Sb Antimony Cu Copper Si Silicon F Fluorine Sn Tin Fe Iron Sr Strontium Ga Gallium Ti Titanium H Hydrogen U Uranium He Helium W Tungston Hg Mercury Xe Xenon I Iodine Zn Zinc Composition of matter What is a pure substance? Matter that has the same composition throughout. IT CAN NOT BE SEPERATED by physical means. Element: Matter that cannot be broken down to any simpler substance even by a Chemical Reaction A few things to note: - Elements do not equal atoms - Elements are the building blocks of all matter Metals can be told apart from non-metals by their luster and ability to conduct electricity. What is a metalloid? An element that has properties between metals and nonmetals Elemental Symbol: Shorthand version of the Elements full name. Some elements like Copper and Gold represent the elements Italian name. Ex: Cooper- Cu-Cuprum Gold- Au-Aurum Compound: a substance composed of two or more elements combined in definite proportions. Cannot be separated by a physical reaction but can be separated by a chemical reaction Ionic compounds and molecular compounds (molecules) Molecules: Two or more atoms combined in definite proportions Chemical Formula: describes the composition of a compound using the symbols of the elements and the subscripts show the relative proportions of the elements in the compound. Mixture: Matter that consists of two or more pure substances that may vary in composition. Can be separated by a Physical reaction. Two Types: Homogeneous: uniform composition throughout (solution), can’t see the different components Heterogeneous: Un-uniform composition throughout, can see different components What is air? Air is a homogeneous mixture Physical reactions can be used to separate a mixture into its pure components. Representation of matter Physical state: Three states of matter, solid, liquid and gas Why does ice float? It is less dense Water is special Physical and Chemical Properties Property of matter: Something that you can measure or observe about matter. Physical Property: a characteristic of matter that can be observed or measured without changing the composition of that matter Intensive: a property that is independent of how much is there, independent of sample size Extensive: a property that is dependent on how much there is, dependent on sample size Physical properties: Mass, Volume, Density, Temperature What is density? The ratio of mass to volume The ratio of the mass of the amount of matter is a given space. Is mass and volume intensive or extensive? It is extensive Is density intensive or extensive? Intensive, packing of particles is the same What is Temperature? Temperature is a measure of how hot something is compared to a standard. Measure of thermal energy that the particles have. Higher temp= Particles move faster Is temperature intensive or extensive? Intensive Physical Change: evaporation, freezing A process that changes the physical properties of a substance without changing the chemical composition. It is still the same matter Chemical properties: reactivity, flammability A property that is defined by what the matter is composed of and what chemical changes it can undergo. The matter needs to change, Chemical Changes=Chemical Reaction Chemical Change: a process in which one or more substances are changed into new substances Laws Vs Theories Law: when the behavior of matter is so consistent it becomes a law due to universal validity A scientific law describes the way nature operates under set conditions 1. Law of conservation of mass 2. Law of conservation of energy Sadly laws only describe the way nature works the way it does, not why. Theories: Explain why observations, hypothesis or laws apply under many different cases 1) Atomic theory 2) Electronic theory 3) Valence bond theory
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