CHM 1020- Chp 1 and Week 1
CHM 1020- Chp 1 and Week 1 CHM 1020
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Belson on Monday January 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CHM 1020 at Wayne State University taught by Maryfrances Barber in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 101 views. For similar materials see Survey of General Chemistry in Chemistry at Wayne State University.
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Date Created: 01/11/16
Chp 1 Notes 1/14/16- Chp 1 of General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, 7th Edition, by H. Stephen Stoker Week 1 Lectures- 1/12/16 and 1/14/16 with Maryfran Barber 1.1: Chemistry A. Chemistry: Study of characteristics, composition, and transformations of matter B. Matter: anything that has mass and occupies space. Forms of energy, like heat, light, and electricity, are not considered matter. C. Mass: measure of the amount of matter 1.2: Physical States of Matter A. Solid: Physical state that has a definite shape and a definite volume B. Liquid: Physical state that has an indefinite shape but a definite volume. Liquid will always take the shape of its container. C. Gas: Physical state that has an indefinite shape and an indefinite volume. Gases always fill the shape of the container Physical States can be changed due to pressure, temperature, and the strength of the forces holding the structural particles together. Take ice skating as an example. When you are wearing skates, all of your weight is on one little blade that touches the ice. All of that pressure then melts the ice, creating a thin sheen of water on top of the solid surface that allows you to skate. 1.3: Properties of Matter Property: A distinguishing characteristic that is used to identify and describe a particular substance. There are two types: A. Physical: Observed without changing the basic identity of the substance. The appearance may change, but the identity does not. Can you get the same thing back? a. Color b. Physical State c. Hardness d. Dissolving salt in water e. Melting and Boiling points B. Chemical: Characteristic of a substance that describes the way the substance undergoes or resists change to form a NEW substance. Copper turning green after being exposed to moist air for a long time is a chemical property. Copper is no longer copper, and the oxygen is no longer oxygen, it is copper (2) oxide. a. Interactions with other substances, while the second substance is not a requirement for classification of a chemical property b. Heat or light can trigger decomposition c. Signs of a chemical change: i. A material disappears ii. A new material appears iii. Temperature change (heat is released or absorbed) iv. Light 1.4: Changes in Matter A. Physical Change: A substance changes the physical appearance but not chemical composition a. A new substance is NEVER made out of a physical change b. Melting, freezing, evaporation, and condensation are physical changes. c. Crush, dissolve, melt, evaporate B. Chemical Change: a substance undergoes a change in its chemical composition a. Involve a conversion of the material or materials into one or more new substances that has a distinctly different composition. b. Rusting is a chemical change. c. Rust, burn, etc 1.5: Pure Substances and Mixtures A. Pure Substance: A kind of matter that cannot be separate into other kinds of matter by any physical means. a. Water b. Always has a definite and constant composition, they have a formula B. Mixture: Physical combination of two or more pure substances in which each substance retains its own chemical identity. Can be separated by physical means! Water and salt. a. Physically mixed, not chemically combined b. Components may be separated by using physical means c. Variable compositions, by varying the amounts of each component. d. Heterogeneous Mixture: contains visibly different parts that have different properties. More than one thing. e. Homogeneous Mixture: Mixture that contains only one visibly distinct part, which has uniform properties throughout. Usually a liquid. SOLUTION i. Sugar and water 1.6- Elements and Compounds A. Element: Pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler pure substances by chemical means such as reactions, electric currents, heat, or a beam of light. a. There are 118 known elements B. Compound: Pure substance that can be broken down into two or more simpler pure substances by chemical means. a. Water b. Compounds are NOT mixtures. Compounds are chemically bound together (consider a box of padlocks with their keys inserted), whereas mixtures are physically mixed together (a box of padlocks and keys). 1.7- Discovery and Abundance of the Elements A. 88 of 118 elements occur naturally, 30 have been synthesized B. The naturally elements are not evenly distributed on Earth C. Hydrogen and Helium are the most dominant of the universe. 91% of all elemental particles (atoms) are hydrogen, and nearly all the remaining 9% are helium. D. Oxygen and Silicon are the dominating elements of Earth's crust 1.8- Names and Chemical Symbols of the Elements A. Elements names are derived from many rationales. Geographical, its discoverer, planets, Greek, etc. B. Chemical Symbol: One or two letter designation for an element derived from the elements name. a. 11 elements have chemical symbols that do not have a relationship with the English name, and in 10 of those cases the symbol is derived from the Latin name, and in 1, Tungsten, its German name is the source. 1.9: Atoms and Molecules A. Atom: the smallest particle of an element that can exist and still have the properties of the element. a. An atom is too small to be observed with the naked eye b. Atomic dimensions are calculated from measurements made on large size samples of the elements. c. Free atoms rarely exist in nature d. Limit of chemical subdivision B. Molecule: A group of two or more atoms that function as a unit because the atoms are tightly bound together. a. Smallest particle of a compound capable of stable independent existence b. Limit of physical subdivision C. Diatomic Molecule: A molecule that contains two atoms. D. Triatomic Molecule: A molecule that contains three atoms. E. Homoatomic Molecule: A molecule in which all atoms are the same kind a. It must be an element F. Heteroatomic Molecule: A molecule in which two or more kinds of atoms are present. a. It must be a compound b. The number of atoms varies c. Water- 3 atoms, 2 hydrogen and 1 oxygen. 1.10: Chemical Formulas A. Chemical Formula: notation made up of chemical symbols of elements present in a compound and numerical subscripts that indicate the number of atoms of each element present in a molecule of the compound. a. H O2denotes that a water molecule contains 2 elements, hydrogen and oxygen, and has 3 atoms, 2 hydrogen and 1 oxygen. b. Al 2SO )4 32 aluminum, 3 sulfur, and 12 oxygen.
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