Chemistry review GEOL 207
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Justin Notetaker on Monday January 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 207 at Ball State University taught by Neumann in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Environmental Geology - Geological/Geochemica in Geology at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 01/11/16
Week 2 (no class week oneProfessor illness) Geology 207 Environmental Geology, Geochemical Cycles Dr. Klaus Neumann INTRODUCTION / REFRESHER CHEMISTRY Atom Basic building block. Proton (+) Mass =1 Neutron (-) Mass = 0 Electron (0) Mass = 1 Atomic Number = Number of protons Determine number of neutron (Atomic mass – atomic number) Balance charge using protons and electrons (neutron charge = 0) - Most stable (rarely react) when out most electron orbit is completely filled. (Noble Gases- He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn) Ion has a charge (+ or -) Cation Positive charge (+) Anion Negative charge (-) Compounds – atoms together NaCl – Ionic compound Covalent – (NH3) - Metallic Bonds – Metal – Conductor (electricity) – Hydrogen Bonds – Isotope – Change in neutrons Radioactivity –most reactive Carbon-14 (most radioactive, choosing from carbon-12, carbon-13, & carbon-14) Mole atomic mass (grams) or molar ratios (Avogadro’s number) CHEMICAL REACTIONS 1. Precipitation/Dissolution 2. Acid/Base 3. Oxidation Reduction Precipitation/Dissolution Reactant (left side) Products (right side) Na(+) + Cl(-) NaCl Acid / Base (Sum always remains the same) HCl H(+) + Cl(-) Acid H20 H(+) + OH(-) Acid NaOH Na(+) + OH(-) Base pH – level of acidity; Oxidation / Reduction Oxidation is the loss of electrons or an increase in oxidation state by a molecule, atom, or ion. Reduction is the gain of electrons or a decrease in oxidation state by a molecule, atom, or ion. CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O Carbon changes charge WATER (Covalent) Vapor Liquid Solid Density is temperature dependent. If you heat water it will take more space FRESHWATER
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