Chem 1314 week 1 notes
Chem 1314 week 1 notes Chem 1314
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Morgan Walker on Monday January 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 1314 at Oklahoma State University taught by Dr. Jimmie Weaver in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Chemistry at Oklahoma State University.
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Date Created: 01/11/16
Chapter 1 Chemistry- known as the study of matter and changes that it undergoes Matter- is anything that occupies space You occupy space therefore you are matter Substance- is a form of matter that has a definite composition Ex: water or gold Qualitative Information- characteristics that are different from each other, mostly physical If the end product is spikey looking versus something that is smooth looking Quantitative Information- information given in the form of numbers Ex. The height of an object Law of Conservation of Mass- this states that matter cannot be created or destroyed Scientific Law- a brief statement that summarizes a previous observation Theory- describes many facts or laws that are based on it States Solid- molecules arranged to be packed together tightly and in a fixed location Crystalline- molecules in a repeating order o Ex. Ruby Amorphous- molecules that do not have a long range pattern o Ex. Fabric Liquid-molecules are packed but can move feely in-between each other Ex. Orange Juice Gas- molecules are very loosely packed and move freely Ex. Air Mixture- combination of two or more substances Homogenous- composition of the mixture is the same at the top and bottom o Ex. Lemonade Heterogeneous- composition of mixture is not the same at the top and bottom o Ex. Cement Separation You can separate a mixture into its pure elements by different physical means such as… 1. Filtration- using a paper with very tiny holes to catch the solid particles leaving the liquid on its own 2. Distillation- Heating an all liquid solution, catching the evaporated material and cooling it therefore separating the two liquids from each other Compound- a substance made of two or more elements that are chemically combined into certain proportions Can only be separated chemically since they were bounded chemically Element- substance that cannot be separated into simpler substances Ex: Hydrogen Types of Changes Physical- changes to the matter that does not change its composition Ice melting into water Chemical- changes in matter that does change the composition 2H 2 O -> 2H 2 Measurements Measurement- a quantitative observation, two factors are value and unit Base Unit- units that cannot be broken down, or describes using simpler units o Ex: kg, seconds meters Compound Unit- units that can be broken down into simpler units o Ex: mph Units Mass- the quantity of matter, or how much something is Kg Volume- the cubic meter, or how much space something takes up 1 mL Density- mass divided by volume Temperature Comparison Kelvin= Celsius + 273.15 Fahrenheit= 9/5 * Celsius +32 Accuracy- how close a measurement is to its true value A mass of an object is 16g and you get 15.9999 that is accurate Precision- how close a set of measurements are to each other A mass of an object is 16g and you measure 66 different ones and they are all .001 off Uncertainty in Measurement There is always a certain degree of uncertainty It can be determined by replicated measurements 3.08 ± .02, either 3.1, 3.08 or 3.06 work Uncertainty can be estimated (using significant figures) 3.08ft (8 is the uncertain digit) Scientific Notation Significant Figures 1. Any digit that is not a zero is significant a. 5.987m has 4 significant figures (sig figs) 2. Zeros between non zero digits are significant a. 707g has 3 sig figs 3. Zeros to the left of the first non zero are not significant a. 0.09ml, one sig fig 4. Number is greater than one all zeros to the right of the decimal point are significant a. 4.0mg, 2 sig figs 5. Number is less than one, then only zeros at the end and middle of the number are significant a. 0.00780, 3 sig figs Adding and Subtracting Sig Figs The answer cannot have more digits to the right of the decimal point than any of the original numbers take the decimal place from smaller number o 76.456+1.01 answer will be two digits to the right of decimal point Multiplication and Division The number of sig figs in the answer is determined by the original number with the smallest number of sig figs 4.57 (3sf) / 8.7899 (5 sf) answer will have 3 sig figs Exact Numbers Numbers from definitions or number of objects are considered to have an infinite number of sig figs Dimensional Analysis Is a powerful method of problem solving 1. Determine which unit conversion factors are needed 2. Carry units throughout the calculation 3. If all units cancel except for desired unit(s) then the problem was solved correctly Given quatity X conversion factor = desired quantity 1.63 L X 1L=1000mL = 1630 mL
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