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General Biology 2 Notes Week 1

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by: Christina Hancock

General Biology 2 Notes Week 1 EBIO 1220

Marketplace > University of Colorado at Boulder > Science > EBIO 1220 > General Biology 2 Notes Week 1
Christina Hancock

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These notes cover the first week of General Biology. The notes layout Chapter 19 "Evolutionary Forces"
General Biology 2
Dr. Carol Kearns
Class Notes
General Biology 2




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christina Hancock on Monday January 11, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EBIO 1220 at University of Colorado at Boulder taught by Dr. Carol Kearns in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see General Biology 2 in Science at University of Colorado at Boulder.


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Date Created: 01/11/16
Monday, January 11, 2016 Gen. Biology Notes Week 1 Evolution by Natural Selection Chapter 19 Evolution is a scientific theory What does it mean to be a theory: Cant really prove a theory but all evidence shows support, How we understand our world today. Western Philosophy: Plato claimed that every organism was an example of a perfect essence or type created by God and that these types were unchanging - Typology Aristotle ordered these types of organisms into a linear scheme called the great chain of being. This scale was organized into a sequence based on increasing site and complexity. Late 1850: Darwin and Wallace proposed the change in species through time does not follow a linear, progressing pattern but instead is based on variation among individuals in population. Darwin and Wallace proposed that evolution occur because of Natural Selection ——The process by which individuals in a population with certain heritable traits tend to produce more offspring than do individuals without those traits, leading to changes in the maker of the population. (Speckled Moth Example) Decent with modification: meaning that change over time produces modern species from ancestral species. Two big claims about the nature of species: 1. They change through time, 2. They are related by common ancestry 1 Monday, January 11, 2016 Key concepts: Populations and species evolve, meaning that their characteristics change through time. Changes in allele frequencies over time Natural Selection occurs when individuals with certain alleles produce the most offspring in a population An Adaption is a genetically based trait that increases an individual’s ability to produce offspring in a particular environment. Natural Selection depends on 4 key parameters: - Overpopulation - too many babies to survive = competition to survive. Most able babies survive. - Variation - Produced by sexual reproduction - Not every offspring is going to be exactly the same. Variation provides the raw material for Natural Selection. - Heritability - Some of the variation among individuals must have a genetic basis so offspring can inherit the characteristic. Parents and Babies look identical due to heritability but also the environmental components change characteristics. - Differential survival and reproduction - Individuals that thrive in their environment will survive, reproduce, and pass their traits on to the next generation. Their genes will e represented at a greater frequency in the next generation. Darwinian Fitness: the ability of an individual to produce offspring, relative to that ability in other individuals in the population. Adaption: is a heritable trait that increases an individual’s darwinian fitness in a particular environment relative to the environment. ——————————————————————————————————————— Evidence for Change through Time Fossils- are traces of organisms that lived in the past The many fossils that have been found and described in the scientific literature make up the fossil record. Transitional Forms: provide evidence for change through time. Show slight changes. 2 Monday, January 11, 2016 Radio Active Isotopes: used to assign absolute ages to the geologic time scale. Geologic data show that Earth is about 4.6 billion years old. Lines of Evidence Extinction Many fossils provide evidence for extinct species, those that are no longer living. Artificial Selection Humans are chasing characteristics of organisms. Ex. Teosinte: A crop that grows to produce a small flower, now modified by humans to be known as modern corn. They did this by always taking the biggest crop and cultivating it. Change through time because of Natural Selection • Direct Observation of Natural Selection in Nature Ex. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics Galapagos finch break size Guppy fish body size Light mice in a dark barn Mosquito resistance to DDT Rhagoletis apple maggot speciation Vestigial Traits - a reduced or incompletely developed structure in an organism that has no function or reduced function, but is clearly similar to functioning organs or structures in closely related organisms. (Appendix, Tailbone) Genetic and Developmental Homology Homology- similarity that exists in species defended from common ancestor. 3 Monday, January 11, 2016 Genetic Homology- similarity in the DNA sequences of different species. A main example is the genetic code itself. AN example is Homeobox genes. Developmental Homology- similarity in thee embryonic traits. AN example is the gill pushes found during embryonic development in chicks, humans, and cats. Structural Homology- refers to the similarities in adult morphologies. AN example is the common structural plan found in the bones of the limbs in vertebrates. Turtle, Human, Horse, Bird, Bat, and Seal’s all have similar bones but are structured different to be used in a more efficient way for their style of living. Geographic Relationships Similarities among island species. Ex. Mockingbird species are part of a phylogeny, a family tree of populations or species. **Evolution is NOT goal-directed or Progressive** Adaptations do not occur because organisms want or need them. There are no “higher” organisms ——————————————————————————————————————— 4


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